RH Evaluation Final Report.pdf - A COMMUNITY COURT GROWS IN BROOKLYN A COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION OF THE RED HOOK COMMUNITY JUSTICE CENTER Final Report

RH Evaluation Final Report.pdf - A COMMUNITY COURT GROWS IN...

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Unformatted text preview: A COMMUNITY COURT GROWS IN BROOKLYN: A COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION OF THE RED HOOK COMMUNITY JUSTICE CENTER Final Report Authors: Cynthia G. Lee, National Center for State Courts Fred L. Cheesman, II, National Center for State Courts David B. Rottman, National Center for State Courts (Project Director) Rachel Swaner, Center for Court Innovation Suvi Lambson, Center for Court Innovation Mike Rempel, Center for Court Innovation Ric Curtis, John Jay College Contributors: John Jay College Avi Bornstein Anthony Marcus Sarah Rivera National Center for State Courts Jordan Bowman Scott Graves This project was supported by Award No. 2009-IJ-CX-0016 awarded by the National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. The opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this publication/program/exhibition are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect those of the Department of Justice. Cover image by Gene Sorkin, Youth Programs Office, Red Hook Community Justice Center Recommended citation: Lee, C.G., F. Cheesman, D. Rottman, R. Swaner, S. Lambson, M. Rempel & R. Curtis (2013) A Community Court Grows in Brooklyn: A Comprehensive Evaluation of the Red Hook Community Justice Center. Williamsburg VA: National Center for State Courts. Pre-Released November, 2013 A Community Court Grows in Brooklyn A Community Court Grows in Brooklyn CONTENTS Acknowledgements ........................................................................................................................ xiii Chapter 1. Theoretical Foundations And Study Context .................................................................. 1 A. Community Courts And The Problem-Solving Courts Movement .......................................... 1 B. Red Hook Community Justice Center Program Theory ........................................................... 4 1. Deterrence .............................................................................................................................. 5 2. Intervention ............................................................................................................................ 6 3. Legitimacy ............................................................................................................................. 7 C. Research Literature On Community Courts ........................................................................... 10 1. Expanded Sentencing Options ............................................................................................. 10 2. Compliance With Alternative Sanctions ............................................................................. 11 3. Community Perceptions ...................................................................................................... 11 4. Litigant Perceptions ............................................................................................................. 11 5. Impacts On Recidivism And Neighborhood Crime ............................................................ 12 6. Cost Savings ........................................................................................................................ 13 Chapter 2. Evaluation Data And Methods ...................................................................................... 14 A. Qualitative Data ...................................................................................................................... 14 B. Quantitative Data .................................................................................................................... 14 1. Case Processing Data........................................................................................................... 14 2. Comparison Data ................................................................................................................. 15 3. Arrest Data ........................................................................................................................... 21 C. Ethnographic Data .................................................................................................................. 21 Chapter 3. Planning The Red Hook Community Justice Center .................................................... 23 A. A Neighborhood In Crisis ...................................................................................................... 23 B. The Call For A Community Court In Red Hook .................................................................... 24 C. Building A Coalition .............................................................................................................. 26 D. Involving The Community ..................................................................................................... 26 E. Delivering Value ..................................................................................................................... 28 1. The Red Hook Public Safety Corps ..................................................................................... 28 2. Youth Court ......................................................................................................................... 29 A Community Court Grows in Brooklyn F. Founding The Center For Court Innovation ........................................................................... 30 G. Building The Justice Center ................................................................................................... 31 1. Refining The Plan ................................................................................................................ 31 2. Selecting The Site ................................................................................................................ 32 3. Renovating The Building..................................................................................................... 33 H. Final Preparations ................................................................................................................... 33 Chapter 4. Organizational Structure And Staffing .......................................................................... 35 A. Court System Personnel And Functions ................................................................................. 35 1. Judge .................................................................................................................................... 35 2. Court Attorney ..................................................................................................................... 36 3. Court Clerk’s Office ............................................................................................................ 36 4. Resource Coordinator .......................................................................................................... 37 5. Court Officers ...................................................................................................................... 37 6. Other Court System Staff .................................................................................................... 39 B. Center For Court Innovation Personnel And Functions ......................................................... 39 1. Project Director And Deputy Project Director .................................................................... 40 2. Clinic ................................................................................................................................... 41 3. Alternative Sanctions ........................................................................................................... 41 4. Housing Resource Center .................................................................................................... 42 5. Family Court Clinic ............................................................................................................. 42 6. Community And Youth Programs ....................................................................................... 43 7. Research............................................................................................................................... 44 8. Facility ................................................................................................................................. 44 C. Legal And Criminal Justice Personnel ................................................................................... 44 1. District Attorney’s Office .................................................................................................... 45 2. Corporation Counsel ............................................................................................................ 45 3. Legal Aid ............................................................................................................................. 45 4. Criminal Justice Agency ...................................................................................................... 46 5. Probation Officer ................................................................................................................. 46 6. New York City Police Department ...................................................................................... 46 D. Other Government And Community Partners ........................................................................ 47 A Community Court Grows in Brooklyn v E. Community Advisory Board ................................................................................................... 47 Chapter 5. Community And Youth Programs................................................................................. 49 A. Housing Court And The Housing Resource Center ............................................................... 49 1. The Role Of Housing Cases In Justice Center Planning And Implementation ................... 49 2. The Context: Public Housing In Red Hook And The Surrounding Neighborhoods ........... 50 3. Housing Court Jurisdiction .................................................................................................. 51 4. Trends In Housing Caseloads .............................................................................................. 52 5. Housing Court Process ........................................................................................................ 54 6. The Role Of The Housing Resource Center ........................................................................ 55 7. Housing Court And Criminal Justice Outcomes ................................................................. 56 B. Youth Programs ...................................................................................................................... 58 1. Youth Court ......................................................................................................................... 59 2. Teach ................................................................................................................................... 60 3. Youth Echo .......................................................................................................................... 61 4. Internships ........................................................................................................................... 62 5. Justarts ................................................................................................................................. 62 6. GED Program ...................................................................................................................... 62 7. Youth Programming Partnerships ....................................................................................... 63 C. Community Programs And Public Outreach .......................................................................... 63 D. Walk-In Services .................................................................................................................... 64 E. Resident And Offender Perceptions Of The Red Hook Community Justice Center .............. 65 1. Community Connections ..................................................................................................... 65 2. Police-Community Relations ............................................................................................... 66 F. Conclusions: Community And Youth Programs .................................................................... 66 Chapter 6. Criminal Court Case Processing And Sanctioning Practices At Red Hook ................. 68 A. The Multi-Jurisdictional Courtroom ...................................................................................... 68 B. Arraignments .......................................................................................................................... 70 1. Pre-Arraignment Procedures ............................................................................................... 70 2. Volume Of Arraignments .................................................................................................... 71 3. Precinct Of Arrest ................................................................................................................ 72 4. Caseload Composition ......................................................................................................... 74 A Community Court Grows in Brooklyn vi C. Criminal Case Outcomes ........................................................................................................ 75 1. Data ...................................................................................................................................... 76 2. Time To Disposition ............................................................................................................ 77 3. Initial Case Disposition ....................................................................................................... 77 4. Alternative Sanctions ........................................................................................................... 79 5. Final Case Disposition ......................................................................................................... 82 D. Summons Cases...................................................................................................................... 85 E. Offender Perceptions Of Procedural Justice ........................................................................... 86 F. Conclusions: Criminal Court Case Processing And Sanctioning Practices At Red Hook...... 87 Chapter 7. Drug Treatment Cases ................................................................................................... 90 A. Drug Treatment Procedures.................................................................................................... 90 1. Assessment And Plea........................................................................................................... 90 2. Referral To Programs .......................................................................................................... 91 3. Treatment Monitoring.......................................................................................................... 92 4. Final Disposition.................................................................................................................. 94 5. Comparison To Traditional Drug Court Procedures ........................................................... 94 B. Drug Treatment Caseloads ..................................................................................................... 96 C. Treatment Modalities .............................................................................................................. 97 D. Drug Treatment Case Outcomes .......................................................................................... 100 E. Conclusions: Drug Treatment Cases..................................................................................... 103 Chapter 8. Family Court ............................................................................................................... 105 A. History Of The Red Hook Community Justice Center Family Court .................................. 105 B. Family Court Process............................................................................................................ 108 C. Family Court Participants ..................................................................................................... 116 D. Conclusions: Family Court................................................................................................... 121 Chapter 9: Impact On Recidivism And Arrests ............................................................................ 122 A. Recidivism Analysis: Criminal Court .................................................................................. 122 1. Data .................................................................................................................................... 122 2. Measuring Recidivism ....................................................................................................... 123 3. One-Year And Two-Year Re-Arrest Outcomes ................................................................ 123 4. Survival Analysis ............................................................................................................... 125 A Community Court Grows in Brooklyn vii 5. Procedural Justice And Recidivism ................................................................................... 139 B. Recidivism Analysis: Family Court ..................................................................................... 141 1. Data .................................................................................................................................... 141 2. One-Year And Two-Year Re-Arrest Outcomes ................................................................ 141 3. Survival Analysis ............................................................................................................... 142 C. Change Point Analysis Of Catchment Area Arrests ............................................................. 145 1. Data .................................................................................................................................... 145 2. Change Point Analysis....................................................................................................... 145 D. Conclusions: Recidivism And Arrests ................................................................................. 153 Chapter 10. Cost Efficiency Analysis .......................................................................................... 156 A. Methodology ........................................................................................................................ 156 B. Costs ..................................................................................................................................... 157 1. Start-Up Costs.................................................................................................................... 157 2. Funding And Expenditures For Justice Center Operations ............................................... 160 3. Partner Expenses ................................................................................................................ 162 4. Other Costs And Benefits .................................................................................................. 166 C. Benefits ................................................................................................................................. 166 1. The Cost Of Jail Use .......................................................................................................... 166 2. Value Of Community Service ........................................................................................... 167 3. Avoided...
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