Unit 4 Lessons 10-12 (Quiz 4).pdf - Unit 4 Lessons...

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Unformatted text preview: Unit 4: Lessons 10-12 (Quiz 4) Tuesday, January 10, 2017 1:59 PM Lesson 10: School: - Secondary school--> place that contains all sorts of students with vast interest; struggle with adolescent's attention ○ American's want adolescents to do well in school for job but also be able to live life ○ Other developed countries-> can be more demanding ○ Developing--> not many adolescents go to secondary school b/c families need their labour and benefits of school is uncertain - American schools are diverse--> b/c no national policy ○ Quality of the school is sometimes troubling The Rise of Schooling for Adolescents: - The compulsory secondary school education==> NEW ○ During Age of Adolescence (1890-1920)--> states began to pass laws requiring school attendance through early teens - Schooling became the normative in other Western countries - Developing countries--> adolescents do not attend--> seen for urban middle class ○ Usually engaged in productive work b/c labour is needed for families - Consequence of economic development--> adolescents are increasingly likely to remain at school BUT IS GOOD ○ b/c there is less need for adolescent labour and going to school increases economic benefits - Effect of economic development on education in developing countries: ○ Evident in LITERACY ○ Ex. Egypt (88%) of males ages 15-24 can read and write compared to only (30%) of males aged 65+ Changes in Schooling for Adolescents: - The things they learn in school has changed - 19th century--> few attended secondary ○ Mainly for the wealthy ○ Curriculum--> constructed to provide young people (males) with broad liberal arts programs--> no economic purpose - 1920--> rise in attends--> reform was needed ○ Broad cross section of American population--> many recent - 19th century--> few attended secondary ○ Mainly for the wealthy ○ Curriculum--> constructed to provide young people (males) with broad liberal arts programs--> no economic purpose - 1920--> rise in attends--> reform was needed ○ Broad cross section of American population--> many recent immigrants ○ Central goal--> training for work and citizenship ○ Comprehensive high school--> classes in general education, college prep, and vocational training - 1920 to mid 20th--> attend increased ○ Enlarged to include preparation for family life and leisure time ○ Ex. Courses in music, art, health and physical education - 1950-60--> told they were ineffective--> needed change ○ Focused on deficiencies of science education - 1970--> committees blamed schools for alienation of American people--> told they were too far removed from real life ○ Encouraged to develop programs involving less time in traditional classrooms and more times learning skills in workplace - 1980s--> the achievement scores declined--> new committees formed ○ The changes became the program and had to go back to basics - 1990s--> called for more demanding high school curriculums ○ Amount of time per year spent in school increased ○ 20 states have an exit exam to ensure graduates obtained least min level of basic academic skills - The Diversity of American Education: (US) ○ Keep in mind these reforms didn't have much direct power to implement proposed solutions ○ Most decisions are controlled on local and state levels (not national) ○ Great deal of variability exists--> in curriculum they use, school rules and requirements; ○ Quality depends on financial resources available ○ 1994--> federal government established national program for educational standards (called Goals 2000) ○ 2001--> the No Child Left Behind Act--> provides billions toward number of objectives--> most ambitious program yet Secondary Education Around the World: - Diversity worldwide in kinds of secondary schools they attend and likelihood that they will attend - Sharp contrast between developed and developing countries ○ Developed--> all adolescents enrolled § Tertiary education (college and university)--> obtained by half emerging adults ○ Developing--> about 50% attend likelihood that they will attend - Sharp contrast between developed and developing countries ○ Developed--> all adolescents enrolled § Tertiary education (college and university)--> obtained by half emerging adults ○ Developing--> about 50% attend § Beyond is considered for elite and wealthy (10%) - Secondary Education in Developed Countries: ○ Have many types of schools that would make up the western (high school) ○ (1) College-preparatory school--> similar to high school; offers variety of academic courses § Europe--> schools do not include recreational subjects (music, phys ed.)-->About 1/2 of adolescents attend this type ○ (2) vocational schools--> learn the skills involved in specific occupation § 1/4 Europe attend this ○ (3) professional school (Europe)-- provide teacher training, the arts or other specific purposes § 1/4 Europe attend these ○ (4) extensive apprenticeship systems--> can attend others part time and spend learning profession in workplace ○ CONSEQUENCES: § (1) must decide what direction to pursue at young age □ Decision usually made with parents □ Around age 15-16 □ Can have a huge impact on rest of life □ Switching schools is rare ○ Recent years--> begun to offer professional colleges which they can attend after vocational education § Graduation from here will allow entrance to university ○ Morola et al. (98) shows how timing of tracking into diff. types of schools influences timing of their decisions about path to take § French--> choose at 16 which stream of 5 academic school § Finnish--> tracked to upper secondary or vocational § French--> three times likely to know what they want to do ○ System of comprehensive--> allows greater flexibility; can choose wide range of courses; however, little occupational direction is decided ○ Drawback-->teachers have difficulty to find level of teaching that will appeal to all adolescents - Secondary Education in Developing Countries: ○ Secondary is difficult to obtain ○ Few adolescents stay in school until graduation decided ○ Drawback-->teachers have difficulty to find level of teaching that will appeal to all adolescents - Secondary Education in Developing Countries: ○ Secondary is difficult to obtain ○ Few adolescents stay in school until graduation ○ Qualities are low except elite private schools--> due to poorly funding ○ North Africa (Muslim)--> high rates of illiteracy among parents and grandparents--> adolescents more likely to be literate § Almost all regions have a secular educational system § Influence of Islam remains very strong ○ Most are segregated by sex ○ Girls less likely to attend secondary school and university § This is changing because the marriage age is rising § Also cultural values are changing due to globalization ○ Sub-Saharan Africa--> lowest rates of secondary enrollment § Varies by regions § Reasons--) include poverty and civil war § Economy is not industrialized; so school-based knowledge is limited § Labour is needed much more for agriculture, animal care, etc. § Especially low among females--. Expected to not enter workplace and has to do household work and child care ○ Nsamenang (02/11)--> critic of African educational system § Should be remodeled so they are based on indigenous African cultural practices § Taught in school but also alongside adults in daily activities ○ India--> similar to Africa's system; devised by British model § Sharp diff. in enrollment based by gender, social class and rural/urban residence § Poor girls in rural--> rarely attend secondary school (40% cannot read or write) § Despite, has high quality and growing system that is producing graduated (esp. in computers and technology) ○ Chinese and Japanese--> similar in many ways § Admission is restricted--> very high performing students § Intense pressure on high school levels to compete to prepare for university entrance exam § Emphasize rote learning and memorization § Long school days (includes after-school activities) § Difference in educational attainment: □ Japan--> all adolescents graduate from high school □ China--> less than 3/4 attend high school for university entrance exam § Emphasize rote learning and memorization § Long school days (includes after-school activities) § Difference in educational attainment: □ Japan--> all adolescents graduate from high school □ China--> less than 3/4 attend high school ○ Latin America--> experienced rise in recent years § Gender gap does not exist--> Argentina--> enrollment is higher for girls § Difference in social class--> □ Public--> overcrowded and underfunded; high drop out rate □ Private--> wealthy families ○ Themes--. (1) gender differences (favouring boys); (2) poorly funded; (3) overcrowded; (4) few teachers; (5) teachers are not trained properly; (6) families have to pay which is expensive International Comparisons: - 30 years--> international studies published comparing adolescents on academic performances - Key influence on academic performance--> level of economic development in their country ○ In areas for reading, math and science - American academic declined in 70-80s but rose in early 90s - National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)--> examined student's performance science 70s in math, science, reading and writing What Works? The Characteristics of Effective Schools: - Schools vary and some work better than other Does Size Matter? - A lot of research has been done on the optimal size of schools and classes - 20th century-->tendency was to build larger schools to accommodate for the increase population - Increased schools size: ○ Negatives: alienating, less attachment students feel to their teachers and school ○ Positives: offer more diverse range of classes - Smaller schools: ○ Negatives: less diversity ○ Positives: students more likely to participate; placed in position of leadership and responsibility; report participating makes them feel more confident - Scholars--> best school size is between 500 and 1000 students ○ Disagree on class size Junior High, Middle School or Neither? - 6-3-3 plan--> 6 years in primary school; 3 years in junior high and 3 years leadership and responsibility; report participating makes them feel more confident - Scholars--> best school size is between 500 and 1000 students ○ Disagree on class size Junior High, Middle School or Neither? - 6-3-3 plan--> 6 years in primary school; 3 years in junior high and 3 years of high school - 5-3-4 plan--> 5 primary; 3 middle; 4 high school - Studies find first year of junior high is difficult for adolescents--> reason--> school transitions are likely to coincide with other changes - Transition to middle or junior high--> involves changes in school experience ○ Moving rom a small classroom setting to larger (student now has 5+ teachers) ○ Academics are at higher level and grades are viewed as more serious - QUESTION=-> wouldn't it be better to have 8-4 plan ○ Simmons and Bluth (87)--> focused on 4 aspects--> self-esteem, GPA, extra-curricular activities, and perceived anonymity ○ FOUND: diff. among students in every measure except GPA--> diff. favouring 8.4 plan - Other studies show the advantage for 8-4 plan Improving the School Experience of Adolescents - Study--> found that 7th grade adolescents made more positive than negative comments about transition to junior high ○ Positive comments about peer relationships, academics and independence - FOUND--> the reason for diff. with school transitions has nothing to do with age but with school experiences - Eccles--> conducted studies on adolescent's school experience ○ Middle schools/junior high--> tend to have less individual contact between students and teachers - Schools and parents can take steps to make transition more enjoyable ○ One study--> FOUND student sin team organized school adjusted better to transition b/c of the support they felt from teachers ○ Another--> parents who participated in program--> did not show decline in functioning after transition School Climate: - School climate--> term for the quality of the interactions (school experience, school size and timing of school transition) ○ Refers to how teachers interact with students, what sort of expectations an standards and what methods are used in classroom - Coined by Michael Rutter (83)--> done extensive research on adolescents and schools ○ RESULTS: most important differences were related to school ○ Refers to how teachers interact with students, what sort of expectations an standards and what methods are used in classroom - Coined by Michael Rutter (83)--> done extensive research on adolescents and schools ○ RESULTS: most important differences were related to school climate ○ Students better off where teachers were supportive and involved but also applied forms of discipline when needed and held high expectations § Had higher school attendance and achievement; lower rates of delinquency - Study--> compared public and private schools s US--. Led by Coleman ○ FOUND: higher levels of achievement and lower levels of delinquency in schools that maintained high expectations with spirit of involvement and dedication by teachers - CONLCUDE--> successful teaching is a combination of warmth, clear communication, high standards of behaviour, and moderate levels of control Engagement and Achievement in High School: Beyond the Classroom: - Engagement--> quality of being psychologically committed to learning ○ Means being alert and attentive in classroom ○ Approaching assignments with aim of learning material - Not the NORM in school experience - Steinberg (96)--> more than 1/3 students that they rarely try hard or paid attention in class - School climate makes difference: ○ Favourable--> enhances engagement--> higher levels of achievement Family Environments and School: - Parenting affects--> quality of relationship between parents and adolescents but also other aspects (1) attitudes toward school and (2) their performance as students - One influence--> (1) parent's expectation for achievement ○ Those who expect a lot--> generally do well in school § Parents tend to be more involved in education, assisting with course selection, attending programs and keep track of performance § Keep in mind of genotype environment--> parent's who have higher intellectual abilities have higher expectations but also pass genetic contributions to children ○ Those less--> do less great in school - Parent's involvement in education and overall parenting style: ○ Authoritative--> highest levels of engagement in school § Highest level of school success higher intellectual abilities have higher expectations but also pass genetic contributions to children ○ Those less--> do less great in school - Parent's involvement in education and overall parenting style: ○ Authoritative--> highest levels of engagement in school § Highest level of school success § Parents contribute to school success by being more involved § Adolescents--> develop personal qualities (self-reliance, persistence and responsibilities) ○ Authoritarian, Permissive, neglectful--> perform worse § Worst for neglectful parents - Studies--> schools can design effective programs to increase parent's involvement in education ○ Parent engaged==> adolescent's improve in engagement and academic achievement - Family Social Class and School: ○ Another factor to be related to academic achievement--> social class or socioeconomic status (SES) ○ Studies--> found positive association § Ex. Before entering school--> middle-class children score higher than other class § Middle-class EA more likely to attend college after high school ○ Social class represents many other family characteristics that contribute to achievement: § Middle class--> higher IQ and they pass this advantage to children through genes and environment--> This high IQ helps in achievement □ Receive better nutrition and health care § Lower class--> lack of health care could interfere with ability to perform academically □ Subject to more stresses with respect to all stresses (losing job and car breaking down) ○ Parent's behaviour varies by social class: § Middle class--> more likely to be authoritative parenting style; contributes to school success; actively involves in education Peers, Friends and School: - Friends tend to be strongest influence - Other influences--> music, dress, hairstyle - Study--.high school--> friend's influence is greatest in ways: how they attend class, how much time they spend on homework, how hard they try and grades achieved - Influence of friends--> does not have to always be negative: ○ Positives--> (1) give support; (2) encouragement for doing well; (3) plan to attend college - Study--.high school--> friend's influence is greatest in ways: how they attend class, how much time they spend on homework, how hard they try and grades achieved - Influence of friends--> does not have to always be negative: ○ Positives--> (1) give support; (2) encouragement for doing well; (3) plan to attend college - Diff. between high-achieving friends VS> high-achieving peers ○ Peers have lower average levels--> (1) better academic selfconcepts ; (2)higher expectations § Referred to has fish in the big pond==> feels better about themselves for doing better - Middle school--. Worried about concealing high-achievement orientation from peers Work, Leisure, and School: - Part-time work during high-school==. Damaging to school performance ○ Lower grades; less time on homework; more cutting class; cheat on school work; less committed; lower educational aspirations - Abundant leisure--. Interferes with attention to school and schoolwork ○ Steinberg (96)--> FOUND: socializing with friends was most common daily activity (about 20-25 hours per week) ○ Negatively associated with grades ○ **except those who participate in organized activities--> better performance - BOTH WORK AND LEISURE--> ethnic comparisons: ○ Asian Americans: less likely to have part-time job; less likely to work 20+ hours per week; spend half as much time socializing;==> more non-school time is spent on academic--> HAVE highest level of academic achievement Cultural Beliefs and School: - All practices and attitudes towards school--> rooted in cultural beliefs about what is valuable and important - Americans--> not always valued despite talking a lot about education system ○ They want their children to be academically high in rest of world ○ But they will not be making changes to help higher achievement § Ex. Would not vote to increase the length of school day or year - Asians vs. Americans: ○ Asian--. Long tradition of valuing education § India and China--> high value on education for 1000+ years § Today's education system is based on that tradition § They focus on school performance which becomes the first focus in adolescent's lives Academic Achievement in High School: Individual Differences: - Related to (1) characteristics of environment; (2) characteristics of § India and China--> high value on education for 1000+ years § Today's education system is based on that tradition § They focus on school performance which becomes the first focus in adolescent's lives Academic Achievement in High School: Individual Differences: - Related to (1) characteristics of environment; (2) characteristics of adolescent themselves ○ Ex. Ethnic and gender differences--. Two key issues for scholars Ethnic Differences: - Ethnic pattern--> (1) Asian American; (2) Whites; (3) African American; (4) Latino - WHY DIFFERENCE? ○ (1) social class--> African and Latinos are more likely to live in poverty ○ (2) Parental expectations--> Asian parents have high expectations, they believe the high grades is due to effort § Other cultures believe the high grades is due to ability ○ (3) Parenting styles: § Asians are authoritarian --> they excel even though it is found that authoritative parents is strongly related to higher academics ○ (4) friend's attitudes towards education--> Asian most likely to have academically oriented friends § With African and Latinos lea...
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