Published on CourseNotes()Home> Chapter 24 - Industry Comes of Age, 1865-1900Chapter 24 - Industry Comes of Age, 1865-1900I. The Iron Colt Becomes an Iron Horse1. After the Civil War, railroad production grew enormously, from 35,000 mi. of track laid in 1865 to a whopping192,556 mi. of track laid in 1900.Congress gave land to railroad companies totally 155,504,994 acres.For railroad routes, companies were allowed alternate mile-square sections in checkerboard fashion, but untilcompanies determined which part of the land was the best to use for railroad building, all of the land waswithheld from all other users.Grover Cleveland stopped this in 1887.2. Railroads gave land their value; towns where railroads ran became sprawling cities while those skipped by railroadssank into ghost towns, so, obviously, towns wanted railroads in them.II. Spanning the Continent with Rails1. Deadlock over where to build a transcontinental railroad was broken after the South seceded, and in 1862, Congresscommissioned the Union Pacific Railroadto begin westward from Omaha, Nebraska, to gold-rich California.The company received huge sums of money and land to build its tracks, but corruption also plagued it, as theinsiders of the Credit Mobilierreaped $23 million in profits.Many Irishmen, who might lay as much as 10 miles a day, laid the tracks.When Indians attacked while trying to save their land, the Irish dropped their picks and seized their rifles, andscores of workers and Indians died during construction.2. Over in California, the Central Pacific Railroadwas in charge of extending the railroad eastward, and it was backedby the Big Four: includingLeland Stanford, the ex-governor of California who had useful political connections,and Collis P. Huntington, an adept lobbyist.The Central Pacific used Chinese workers, and received the same incentives as the Union Pacific, but it had todrill through the hard rock of the Sierra Nevada.3. In 1869, the transcontinental rail line was completed at Promontory Point near Ogden, Utah; in all, the Union Pacificbuilt 1,086 mi. of track, compared to 689 mi. by the Central Pacific.III. Binding the Country with Railroad Ties1. Before 1900, four other transcontinental railroadswere built:The Northern Pacific Railroadstretched from Lake Superior to the Puget Sound and was finished in 1883.The Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Festretched through the Southwest deserts and was completed thefollowing year, in 1884.The Southern Pacific(completed in 1884) went from New Orleans to San Francisco.The Great Northernran from Duluth to Seattle and was the creation of James J. Hill, probably the greatestrailroad builder of all.2. However, many pioneers over-invested on land, and the banks that supported them often failed and went bankruptwhen the land wasn’t worth as much as initially thought.