CONS 127, Midterm 1, Lecture 1-9.pdf

CONS 127, Midterm 1, Lecture 1-9.pdf - CONS 127 On canvas...

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CONS 127 On canvas at 3:45 pm . Exam style: Multiple choice and short answers (4 to 5 lines). You can’t change your answer once you write it. Final Study Questions: Lecture 1: “The most influential environmental photo” was taken on December 24 th 1968, from Apollo 8 (Mission from a moon orbit) This image, taken on October 12th 2015, is the Earth as imaged from an orbit around the Moon by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter
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Lecture 2 – Attributes of Position What is latitude and longitude ? Latitude : the angular distance north or south of the equator or, angle that describes the north-south position Longitude : the angular distance east or west of the prime meridian or, angle that describes the east-west position Where is the prime meridian ? Prime Meridian (Greenwich) : Origin of the measures of Longitude (zero degrees of longitude). What is a parallel ? Parallel: circle connecting all locations with a given latitude. What are the three ways the earth’s shape can be mathematically defined ? Sphere, Ellipsoid and Geoid What is the only correct representation of the Earth’s surface ? Geoid What is the main difference between an equivalent and conformal projection ? Equivalent (Cylindrical) - distortion of area ( continents or country ) , angles are preserved Conformal (Conic) - distortion of shape ( continents or country ) , areas are preserved *Planar – Equidistant: ● All distances from a point (the projection center) are correct. ● Distances between any other points are incorrect. ● Convenient for radio communications, radar. ● Example: Azimuthal equidistant *Compromise: ● Balances the distortions of shape and area
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● Produces visually appealing maps ● No metric properties: areas, distances, and shapes cannot be measured. ● Examples: Robinson. Considering the case of Africa and Greenland, describe how map projections might influence the perspective of the map viewer. By distorting these landmasses it creates a warped view of the earth by giving higher importance to these showing the bias of the creator. EXTRAS: Ptolemy first attempt to make a map using the Greek system made use of the coordinate system to map locations first map to have latitudes and longitudes drawn in 1428 Poles - points where the Earth’s axis of rotation meets its surface Equator: center of the Earth O o Latitude Intersection of the Earth’s surface with the plane perpendicular to its axis of rotation and midway between the poles Biggest parallel
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Arctic Circle - Northernmost latitude in the Northern Hemisphere where the sun continuously remains above or below the horizon for 24hrs - North of 60 o of the Equator Antarctic Circle - Southernmost latitude in the Southern Hemisphere where the sun continuously remains above or below the horizon for 24hrs Tropic of Cancer - Northernmost circle of latitude where the sun can be directly overhead - Also known as the Northern Tropic, is parallel of latitude which is roughly 23°26′13.0″ north of the Equator
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  • Spring '16
  • Carroll
  • Global Positioning System, Equator, Global navigation satellite system

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