Full Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found atDownload by:[Texas A & M University--Kingsville]Date:12 November 2015, At: 11:42International Journal of Environmental StudiesISSN: 0020-7233 (Print) 1029-0400 (Online) Journal homepage: Hunters and the conservation and management ofwhite-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)David G. HewittTo cite this article:David G. Hewitt (2015) Hunters and the conservation and management ofwhite-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), International Journal of Environmental Studies, 72:5,839-849, DOI: 10.1080/00207233.2015.1073473To link to this article: Published online: 05 Nov 2015.Submit your article to this journal Article views: 2View related articles View Crossmark data
Hunters and the conservation and management ofwhite-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)DAVID G. HEWITT*Caesar Kleberg Wildlife Research Institute, Texas A&M University-Kingsville, 700 UniversityBoulevard, MSC 218, Kingsville, TX 78363, USAWhite-tailed deer are widely distributed in North America and for at least 10,000 years have beenimportant to human beings for food, clothing, and tools. Market hunting and habitat changes in the1800s caused a precipitous decline in the number of white-tailed deer in North America. Huntersacted to restore deer populations. By promoting and helping to enforce hunting regulations, trans-planting deer, and funding conservation and management programs, hunters were the primary rea-son deer populations grew during the 1900s from 500,000 to nearly 30 million. Today white-taileddeer are the most popular big game animal in North America and hunters continue to fund deermanagement and research. Hunters help wildlife agencies to manage white-tailed deer populationswithin ecological and cultural carrying capacity by harvesting deer. Thus, hunters, with their inter-est in viable deer populations, are integral to the conservation and management of white-tailed deerin North America.Keywords: Hunting; Management; White-tailed deerIntroductionWhite-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are a medium-sized cervid that evolved inNorth America. The species’range extends from the Yukon and Northwest Territories inCanada, south through the United States, Mexico, and Central America, into South Amer-ica as far south as Peru and Bolivia . With such a vast range, white-tailed deer are obvi-ously highly adaptable. They are found in boreal, deciduous, and rain forest as well asprairies, mountains, rangelands, and swamps. White-tailed deer prosper in subarctic, tem-perate, semiarid, and highly mesic climatic conditions. In recent times, the whitetail’sadaptability has enabled it to thrive in areas heavily inﬂuenced by people, such as agricul-tural and suburban landscapes.