History in Mathematics.docx - 1 NUMBER SYSTEMS Topic Negative Numbers Historical Narrative The first set of mathematical rules referring to negative

History in Mathematics.docx - 1 NUMBER SYSTEMS Topic...

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1.NUMBER SYSTEMSTopicNegative NumbersHistorical NarrativeThe first set of mathematical rules referring to negative numbers was recorded by Indian mathematician Brahmagupta in the 7thcentury even though many mathematicians around that time believed that negative numbers did not exist. Much earlier in history, negative numbers were refenced by the Chinese. In 200 BCE, the Chinese number rod system used red to represent positive numbers and black to represent negative numbers. The system was used by merchants to keep track of how much they sold. The red rods represented the amount they purchased, and the black rods represented the amount they sold. A similar system for using “fortunes” and “debts” for positive and negative numbers appeared in India about 620 CE. (Rogers, 2011) Depts were also represented by negative numbers in the 10thcentury in medieval Arabi mathematics. As time passed through the centuries, many mathematicians and scholars studied the concept of negative numbers. Some represented negative numbers with linear or quadratic equations, algebraic methods and geometrical diagrams. Many mathematicians found these results to be meaningless and wondered how you could have a negative square. Oncescholars in Europe started studying and translating ancient texts during the 15thcentury, they began building on previous ideas and developed practical applications which kept the negative number concept alive. While working through solutions to equations, Italian mathematician Cardano found sensible answers to algorithms he was working on, but the numbers seemed to disappear during calculations and did not seem to have any real meaning. He decided to call these numbers “fictitious”. By 1572, correct rules for working with these imaginary numbers were established by Italian engineer Bombelli.(Roger, 2011) The beginning of the 19thcentury many different representations of imaginary numbers had been produced by various mathematicians. They worked on the logic of algebra and arithmetic and developed a clearer understanding of negative and imaginary numbers. The world of science, engineering and financial world have negative and imaginary numbers built into them. Negative numbers are used today in banking, stock markets, and anywhere coordinate geometry is used.ResourcesBoster, M (2019) History of Negative Numbers, retrieved from Rogers, L. (2011) The History of Negative Numbers, retrieved from
2. GEOMETRYTopicPiHistorical NarrativeIn mathematics, Pi, is the ratio of the circumference of a circle to the diameter of the circle. The symbol used, , was created by British mathematician William Jones in 1706. (Gregersen 2019 ). Pi is an irrational number, its digits do not repeat, so an approximation is used for everyday calculations. The approximate value used is 3.14 or 22/7.

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