Bio Chapter 7

Bio Chapter 7 - CELLULAR RESPIRATION Chapter 7 _ Is...

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CELLULAR RESPIRATION Chapter 7
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Photosynthesizers get energy from the sun Animals get energy second- or third-hand from plants or other organisms Regardless, the energy is converted to the chemical bond energy of ATP Plants make ATP during photosynthesis Cells of all organisms make ATP by breaking down ________________________________ _____ Is Universal Energy Source
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CO 2 H 2 O Glucose O 2 ATP ECOSYSTEM Photosynthesis in chloroplasts Cellular respiration in mitochondria (for cellular work) Heat energy + +
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Relationship between breathing, eating, and cell respiration
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Main Types of Energy-Releasing Pathways Aerobic pathways Evolved later Require oxygen Start with ________ in ____________ Completed in _______________ Anaerobic pathways Evolved first Don’t require Oxygen Start with glycolysis in cytoplasm Completed in cytoplasm *
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Fig. 3.9
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An overview of cellular respiration 0 NADH NADH FADH 2 GLYCOLYSIS Glucose Pyruvate CITRIC ACID CYCLE OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION (Electron Transport and Chemiosmosis) Substrate-level phosphorylation Oxidative phosphorylation Mitochondrion and High-energy electrons carried by NADH ATP ATP ATP CO 2 CO 2 Cytoplasm Substrate-level phosphorylation Figure 6.6
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Stage Name Action * 1 Glycolysis - Enzymes partly break down glucose to pyruvate - Occurs in cytoplasm - Use 2 ATP, Generate 4 ATP - Net 4 ATP, 2 NADH 2 Krebs Cycle (TCA) - Enzymes break down pyruvate to carbon dioxide - Occurs in mitochondria - Generates 2 ATP, ___ CO 2 2 FADH 2 3 Electron Transfer Phosphor- ylation - Also in mitochondria 2 give up electrons along with H+ - H+ gradients drive ATP formation – 32 ATP - oxygen final electron acceptor – forms water
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The Role of Coenzymes NAD + and FAD accept electrons and hydrogen Become _________ and __________ Deliver electrons and hydrogen to the electron transfer chains – drive water formation and ATP production
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The NAD + cycle
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A simple sugar (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) Atoms held together by covalent bonds Glucose
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Glycolysis yields: - 4 ATP by direct substrate phosphorylation - 2 ATP were consumed in the investments steps - Net gain of ATP from glycolysis is therefore 2 ATP - 2 NADH which will carry electrons to the electron transport chain - When oxygen is available pyruvate will enter the mitochondria for further oxidation If no oxygen is available, pyruvate will enter the fermentation pathway
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Glycolysis: Net Energy Yield Energy requiring steps: 2 ATP invested Energy releasing steps: Glucose split into 2 3-carbon molecules called pyruvate 2 NADH formed 4 ATP formed Net yield is: __________ and __________ *
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Bio Chapter 7 - CELLULAR RESPIRATION Chapter 7 _ Is...

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