notes 1-10-08 - 1-10-08•Social inequalities vs social...

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Unformatted text preview: 1-10-08•Social inequalities vs social identitiesoSocial identitiesRace, gender, class, sexuality, religion, culture, ethnicityoCauses of inequalityPrejudice and discrimination, institutional discrimination, health and wellness, education and socioeconomic status, law and justice, economics, work (employment), wealth.•Broad perspectives on global inequalityoInfant mortality, survivability, education, life expectancy, wealth/economics/average annual income, population growth/expansion, fertility rates/birth rates, mortality/morbidity.•Social differentiationoEvery society has some means by which people differentiate themselves from one another.oSocial inequality exists at the individual level and the group leveloThere are variations (differentiations) both within groups and between groups•Social statusoAscribed status: a social identity or position that we obtain at birth or develop into involuntarily as we get older (race sex religion and family status)oAchieved status: a social position or identity we take on voluntarily or earn through our own efforts or accomplishments (student spouse position)oSocioeconomic status: status associated with wealth and income achieved from education attainment and occupational prestige and ascribed characteristics.•Theories of global social inequalityoModernization theory: a theory of social change with development assistance whereby underdeveloped countries can be developed into modern economies and modern societies, thereby transforming the social conditions of the populace.oA major premise is that modern forms of communication and technology will cause modernization to come about, socially and economically.oProhibitions to modernization can be values, beliefs, contacts and physical environment.•Criticisms to modernization theoryoEthnocentric (my society and ethnicity is best) and glorified western culturesoSelf-aggrandizing (putting another culture/society down)oOver estimates the capacity of underdeveloped countries to developoDestroys cultures and traditionsoBelieves countries can develop from within a little assistance from abroad if they embrace modernization.•World systems theoryoGlobal inequality exists not only because poor countries lack modernization, but also because the rich countries have exploited themoIn 1974 Immanual Wallerstein introduced “World Systems Theory”oPromoters believe it does a much better job of identifying the “external factors” that restrict the development of poor countries.oIt holds that the economic realities of the world system help rich countries stay rich and poor countries stay poor.oRests on the premise that stressed world economic, political, and military events over the past 500 years have caused the persistence of global inequality.oThe affluence of rich countries results from the long term economic exploitation of poor countries, thus perpetuating their poverty....
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This note was uploaded on 03/31/2008 for the course ISS 215 taught by Professor Lang during the Spring '06 term at Michigan State University.

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notes 1-10-08 - 1-10-08•Social inequalities vs social...

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