HD Prelim 2 Guide-ashwin

HD Prelim 2 Guide-ashwin - Chapter 7. Be able to name and...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 7. Be able to name and describe the first two stages in Erikson’s psychosocial theory and the ages to which they apply. - Basic Trust and Mistrust (Year One) o From warm, responsive care, infants gain a sense of trust that the world is good. They tend to explore the world. o Mistrust occurs when infants have to wait too long for comfort and are handled harshly. They are withdrawn.- Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt (Year Two) o Using new mental and motor skills, children want to choose and decide for themselves. Autonomy is fostered when parents permit reasonable free choice and do not force or shame the child. When do infants begin social smiling and laughing?- Smiling: In the beginning, the baby smiles when full, during sleep, and in response to gentle touches and sounds. Later they smile at interesting sights. Between 6-10 weeks , the social smile comes forth. - Laughing: 3-4 months. At first it’s to novel stimuli, then more subtle elements of surprise. What do we know about the development of the four basic emotions of happiness, anger, sadness, and fear in infants?- Happiness o Binds parent and baby into a war, supportive relationship that fosters the infant’s developing competence . - Anger o Newborns respond with generalized distress to unpleasant experiences, including hunger, painful medical procedures, changes in body temperature, and too much or too little stimulation. o From 4-6 months till 2 years, anger increases in frequency and intensity. Kids are capable of intentional behavior and want to control their world. Loss of contingent control triggers anger. This is adaptive to the child. - Sadness o When infants are deprived of the primary caregiver. Also when parent- infant interaction is seriously disrupted. o The child will try very hard to garner a response. o Sadness behavior is a still-faced reaction and is especially noticed in children of depressed parents. - Fear o Rises after 6 months. o Greatest fear is unfamiliar adults: Stranger Anxiety Depends on the temperament and situation. A child being picked up randomly is scary. A child seeing a stranger sitting down is curious. Cultural variations are many. Keeps children’s explorative tendencies in check. What is social referencing?- Infants actively seek emotional information from a trusted person in an uncertain situation. Use this information to guide their own action and to find out about others’ intentions and preferences. What are the self-conscious emotions and when do they begin to appear? - Shame, embarrassment, guilt, envy, and pride. Each involves injury to or Shame, embarrassment, guilt, envy, and pride....
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This note was uploaded on 03/31/2008 for the course HD 1150 taught by Professor Schelhas-miller,c. during the Fall '07 term at Cornell.

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HD Prelim 2 Guide-ashwin - Chapter 7. Be able to name and...

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