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Surname 1Student’s NameProfessor’s NameCourseDateHUMN3981 Assignment 3Part A: Short Critical Reflections of Two ReadingsA critique of the “The State and the Military” reading will be done in this essay. The bookis centered on the fight for democracy in the Latin American region at the time when strugglesbetween the people and the military had grown significantly as either team sought for democracyand authoritarian rule. In it, Huntington offers the model of objective civilian control which aimsto regulate the armed forces by professionalizing them. However, the latter contradicts thesubjective power that entails instituting legal as well as organizational restrictions on militaryfreedom. Years of authoritarian administration (1618-1648) saw Latin America remain a ruralsociety as more resources were set to building a stronger army rather than improve the lives ofthe people. Moreover, most of the militarist rulers in 1930-40 periods were highly motivated byHitler’s rise to power. Such military structures resulted in a considerable number of the LatinAmericans living under tyrannical leadership. However, populist leaders such as Juan Peronoversaw significant development in the industrial sector, equal distribution of income, and rise ofa welfare state. In this case, Huntington’s theory of objective civilian control is helpful inexplaining the success of populist leaders such as Peron and the high numbers of coupsexperienced in the region (Petras para. 17). It is worth pointing out that there were several armiesled coups before the Second World War caused whenever a nation threatened the army or therewas the need to shift the power to civilian friends of the military.
Surname 2The second reading, “Social Movements and the Struggle for Change,” provides a lot ofinsights on the life of squatters and how Brazil’s Movement of Landless (MST) helps thelandless. The movement was not out to take land from the affluent people, but it sought to utilizethe uncultivated farms and wastelands in settling the squatters. Its campaigns resulted in more