hd final vocab - Ch. 12 Concrete Operational Stage Occurs...

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Ch. 12 Concrete Operational Stage – Occurs between 7 and 11 years old. Thinking becomes more logical, flexible, and organized. Decentration – Focusing on several aspects of a problem and relating them. Reversibility – Able to think through a series of stages and then mentally return back to the beginning. Seriation – Ability to order things quantitatively Cognitive Maps – Children’s mental representations of familiar, large-scale spaces Horizontal Décalage – Development within a stage; used to describe the gradual mastery of logical concepts. Cognitive Inhibition – The ability to resist interference from internal and external distracting stimuli Production Deficiency – Failure to produce strategies when they could be helpful; preschoolers rarely engage in attentional strategies Control Deficiency – Failure to control, or execute, strategies effectively; young elementary school kids sometimes produce strategies, but not consistently Utilization Deficiency – Slightly later, children execute strategies consistently, but their performance does not improve Effective Strategy Use – By the mid-elementary school years, children use strategies consistently, and performance improves Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) – A disorder involving inattention, impulsivity, and excessive motor activity that results in academic and social problems Rehearsal – Repeating info to oneself Organization – Grouping related items Elaboration – Creating a relationship, or a shared meaning, between two or more pieces of info that are not members of the same category Cognitive Self-Regulation – The process of continuously monitoring progress toward a learning goal, checking outcomes, and redirecting unsuccessful efforts Whole Language Approach – Being exposed to text in its complete form – poems, stories, letters, posters; parallels natural language learning Basic Skills Approach – Children should be coached on phonics then progressively move into harder material only after mastering the step before Triarchic Theory of Successful Intelligence – Robert Sternberg’s theory that is made up of three broad, interacting intelligences: Analytical Intelligence – Info processing skills Creative Intelligence – Capacity to solve novel problems Practical Intelligence – Application of intellectual skills in everyday situations Theory of Multiple Intelligences – Howard Gardner defines intelligence in terms of distinct sets of processing operations that permit individuals to engage in a wide range of culturally valued activities. Has eight intelligences: Linguistic Logico-Mathematical Musical Spatial Bodily-Kinesthetic Naturalist Interpersonal Intrapersonal Flynn Effect – The steady increase over the generations in IQ Stereotype Threat – Fear of being judged on the basis of a negative stereotype Dynamic Assessment – Adult introduces purposeful teaching into the testing situation to find out what the child an attain with social support; Pretest-intervene-retest Metalinguistic Awareness – Ability to think about language as a system
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hd final vocab - Ch. 12 Concrete Operational Stage Occurs...

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