hd prelim 2 - Ch. 7 Be able to name and describe the first...

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Ch. 7 Be able to name and describe the first two stages of Erikson’s psychosocial theory and the ages to which they apply. o Basic Trust vs Mistrust – The psychological conflict of infancy, which is resolved positively if care giving, especially during feeding, is sympathetic and loving. Age Infancy o Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt – Psychological conflict of toddlerhood, which is resolved positively if parents provide young children with suitable guidance and reasonable choices. Age – Toddlerhood When do infants begin social smiling? When do they begin laughing? Social smiling – 6-10 wks Laughing – 3-4 mos What do we know about the development of the four basic emotions happiness, anger, sadness, and fear in infants? Happiness – Infants laugh and smile when they conquer new skills. This also encourages the care giver to be affectionate. Strengthens the parent-child bond and reflects as well as supports physical and cognitive mastery. Age: 1 st half year Anger – Cognitive and motor development are involved. It motivates babies to defend themselves and overcome obstacles. Age: 2 nd half year Sadness – In response to pain, removal of an object, brief separations, and disruptions of caregiver-infant interaction, but less frequent than anger Fear – Keeps a child’s enthusiasm for exploration in check. Reactions that are adaptive as infants’ motor capacities improve. Most frequent expression of fear is stranger anxiety Age: 2 nd half year What is stranger anxiety? Infants expression of fear in response to unfamiliar adults; appears around age 6 mos. What is social referencing? Relying on a trusted person’s emotional reaction to decide how to respond in an uncertain situation What are the self-conscious emotions and when do they begin to appear? Shame, embarrassment, guilt, envy, and pride begin to appear at about 2½ yrs old What is emotional self-regulation? Strategies we use to adjust out emotional state to a comfortable level of intensity so we can accomplish our goals. Examples of how infants use self-regulation. Turn away, can mouth or suck when feelings are too intense, soothing intervention of caregiver, ability to shift attention, crawling or walking away from unwanted stimulus
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What is temperament? Stable individual differences in quality and intensity of emotional reaction, activity level, attention, and emotional regulation Describe the three types of children’s temperaments identified by Thomas and Chess. Easy Child – Quickly establishes regular routines in infancy, is generally cheerful, and adapts easily to new experiences Difficult Child – Irregular in daily routines, is slow to accept new experiences, and tends to react negatively and intensely Slow-to-Warm-Up Child – Inactive, shows mild, low-key reactions to environmental stimuli, is negative in mood, and adjusts slowly to new experiences What does research show about the stability of temperament? Temperamental stability is generally low to moderate. This is because temperament
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hd prelim 2 - Ch. 7 Be able to name and describe the first...

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