hd prelim 2 - jon

hd prelim 2 - jon - Chapter 9 Pg 315-355 Describe Piaget's...

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Chapter 9 Pg 315-355 Describe Piaget’s second stage of cognitive development, the preoperational stage. -Rapid growth in mental representation that takes place but thought it not yet logical. Growth takes place during the ages 2-7. -Make believe play is an excellent example of the development of representation. -Despite the power of language, Piaget didn’t believe that it plays a major role in cog. Development. -Symbol-Real world relations: being able to interpret the implication of symbols. Dual representation: viewing a symbolic object as both an object in its own right and a symbol. Not until age 3. -In sum, giving young children opportunities to learn the functions of diverse symbols-picture books, photos, drawings, make-believe, and maps-enhances their understanding that one object or event can stand for another. What is socio dramatic play and at what age does it begin? -The make-believe with others that is under way by 2 ½ and increases rapidly during the next few years. Limitations Piaget observed in preoperational thinking: -Piaget described preschool children in terms of what they cannot, rather than can, understand. Young children are not capable of operations: mental representations of actions that obey logical rules. Their thinking is rigid, limited to one aspect at a time, and strongly influenced by the way things appear at the moment. - Egocentrism : The most serious (underlies all others). The failure to distinguish the symbolic viewpoints of others from one’s own. Assume others perceive, think and feel the same way they do. Fig 9.1 -contributes egocentrism to animistic thinking- the belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities, such as thoughts, wishers, feelings and intentions - Conservation : the idea that certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same, even when their outward appearance changes. Make false changes in amount of water, numbers, length, mass, weight -Children’s understanding is centered : focused on one aspect of a situation, neglecting other important features. The child centers on the height of the water (not the actual amount) -distracted by perceptual appearance -most illogical feature of preoperational thought is irreversibility: an inability to mentally go through a series of steps in a problem and then reverse direction, retuning to the starting point. - Lack of Hierarchical Classification: the organization of objects into classes and subclasses on the basis of similarities and differences. Examples of recent research findings related to: - Egocentrism : Non egocentric responses appear in children’s convo’s. Ex. Preschoolers adapt their speech to fit the needs of their listeners. They will use shorter, simpler
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expressions when talking to younger kids. They can adjust their descriptions taking age/content into account.
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