hd prelim 2 - key terms - Ch. 7 Basic Trust vs. Mistrust In...

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Ch. 7 Basic Trust vs. Mistrust – In Erickson’s theory, psychological conflict in 1 st year that turns out positively when the balance of care is sympathetic and loving; comparable to Freud’s oral stage Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt – In Erikson’s theory, psychological conflict in toddlerhood that is resolved favorably when parents provide young children with suitable and reasonable choices. Basic Emotions – Universal in humans an other primates, can directly inferred by facial expressions; include happiness, sadness, fear, and anger Social Smile – A broad grin that appears between 6 and 10 weeks. Stranger Anxiety – A fearful reaction to an unfamiliar adult; most frequent expression of fear Social Referencing – Infants actively seek emotional information from a trusted person in an unfamiliar situation Self-conscious emotions – Feelings include shame, embarrassment, guilt, envy, and pride; each involves injury to or enhancement of our sense of self Emotional Self-Regulation – Strategies we use to adjust our emotional state to a comfortable level of intensity so we can accomplish our goal Temperament – Stable individual differences in quality and intensity of emotional reaction, activity level, attention, and emotional self-regulation Easy Child – In Thomas and Chess’ temperament theory, a child that establishes regular routines in infancy, is generally cheerful, and adapts easily to new experiences Difficult Child - In Thomas and Chess’ temperament theory, a child that has irregular routines in infancy, generally reacts negatively and intensely, and slow to accept new experiences Slow-to-Warm-Up Child – Inactive, show mild, low-key reactions to environment stimuli, is negative in mood, and adjusts slowly to new experiences Inhibited/Shy Children – React negatively to and withdraw from novel stimuli Uninhibited/Sociable Children – React positively to and approach novel stimuli Goodness-of-Fit Model – Designed by Thomas and Chess, explains how temperament and environment can together produce favorable outcomes; involves creating a child-rearing environment that recognizes each child’s temperament while encouraging more adaptive functioning Attachment – The strong, affectionate tie we feel for special people in our lives that leads us to experience pleasure and joy when we interact with them and to be comforted by their nearness during times of stress Ethological Theory of Attachment – Recognizes the infant’s emotional tie to the caregiver as an evolved response that promotes survival; today it’s the most widely accepted view Separation Anxiety – When babies become upset after the adult they have come to rely on leaves Secure Base – A point from which to explore, venturing into the environment and then returning for emotional support; usually a familiar caregiver Internal Working Model – A set of expectations about the availability of attachment figures; their
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hd prelim 2 - key terms - Ch. 7 Basic Trust vs. Mistrust In...

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