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Unformatted text preview: Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 System Administrator's Guide Deployment, Configuration, and Administration of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Last Updated: 2019-06-14 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 System Administrator's Guide Deployment, Configuration, and Administration of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 Marie Doleželová Red Hat Customer Content Services [email protected] Marc Muehlfeld Red Hat Customer Content Services [email protected] Maxim Svistunov Red Hat Customer Content Services Stephen Wadeley Red Hat Customer Content Services Tomáš Čapek Red Hat Customer Content Services Jaromír Hradílek Red Hat Customer Content Services Douglas Silas Red Hat Customer Content Services Jana Heves Red Hat Customer Content Services Petr Kovář Red Hat Customer Content Services Peter Ondrejka Red Hat Customer Content Services Petr Bokoč Red Hat Customer Content Services Martin Prpič Red Hat Product Security Adam Kvítek Red Hat Customer Content Services Eliška Slobodová Red Hat Customer Content Services Eva Kopalová Red Hat Customer Content Services MiroslavNotice Svoboda Legal Red Hat Customer Content Services Copyright © 2018 Red Hat, Inc. David O'Brien This document is licensed byServices Red Hat under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Red Hat Customer Content Unported License. If you distribute this document, or a modified version of it, you must provide Michael Hideo attribution to Red Hat, Inc. and provide a link to the original. If the document is modified, all Red Hat Red Hat Customer trademarks must beContent removed. Services Red Hat, Don Domingo as the licensor of this document, waives the right to enforce, and agrees not to assert, Red Hat4d Section Customer of CC-BY-SA Content to Services the fullest extent permitted by applicable law. Red Hat, John Ha Red Hat Enterprise Linux, the Shadowman logo, the Red Hat logo, JBoss, OpenShift, Red Hatthe Fedora, Customer Infinity Content logo, andServices RHCE are trademarks of Red Hat, Inc., registered in the United States and other countries. Linux ® is the registered trademark of Linus Torvalds in the United States and other countries. Java ® is a registered trademark of Oracle and/or its affiliates. XFS ® is a trademark of Silicon Graphics International Corp. or its subsidiaries in the United States and/or other countries. MySQL ® is a registered trademark of MySQL AB in the United States, the European Union and other countries. Node.js ® is an official trademark of Joyent. Red Hat is not formally related to or endorsed by the official Joyent Node.js open source or commercial project. The OpenStack ® Word Mark and OpenStack logo are either registered trademarks/service marks or trademarks/service marks of the OpenStack Foundation, in the United States and other countries and are used with the OpenStack Foundation's permission. We are not affiliated with, endorsed or sponsored by the OpenStack Foundation, or the OpenStack community. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Abstract The System Administrator's Guide documents relevant information regarding the deployment, configuration, and administration of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7. It is oriented towards system administrators with a basic understanding of the system. To expand your expertise, you might also be interested in the Red Hat System Administration I (RH124), Red Hat System Administration II (RH134), Red Hat System Administration III (RH254), or RHCSA Rapid Track (RH199) training courses. If you want to use Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7 with the Linux Containers functionality, see Product Documentation for Red Hat Enterprise Linux Atomic Host. For an overview of general Linux Containers concept and their current capabilities implemented in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7, see Overview of Containers in Red Hat Systems. The topics related to containers management and administration are described in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Atomic Host 7 Managing Containers guide. Table of Contents Table of Contents . . . . . . .I.. BASIC PART . . . . . . . SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . .CONFIGURATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHAPTER . . . . . . . . . . 1.. .GETTING . . . . . . . . . . STARTED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . WHAT COCKPIT IS AND WHICH TASKS IT CAN BE USED FOR 9 1.1. BASIC CONFIGURATION OF THE ENVIRONMENT 10 1.2. CONFIGURING AND INSPECTING NETWORK ACCESS 11 1.3. THE BASICS OF REGISTERING THE SYSTEM AND MANAGING SUBSCRIPTIONS 13 1.4. INSTALLING SOFTWARE 1.5. MAKING SYSTEMD SERVICES START AT BOOT TIME 1.6. ENHANCING SYSTEM SECURITY WITH A FIREWALL, SELINUX AND SSH LOGINGS 1.7. THE BASICS OF MANAGING USER ACCOUNTS 1.8. DUMPING THE CRASHED KERNEL USING THE KDUMP MECHANISM 1.9. PERFORMING SYSTEM RESCUE AND CREATING SYSTEM BACKUP WITH REAR 15 16 18 22 23 25 1.10. USING THE LOG FILES TO TROUBLESHOOT PROBLEMS 1.11. ACCESSING RED HAT SUPPORT 27 27 .CHAPTER . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . .LOCALE . . . . . . . . .AND . . . . . KEYBOARD . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONFIGURATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 .............. 2.1. SETTING THE SYSTEM LOCALE 30 2.2. CHANGING THE KEYBOARD LAYOUT 2.3. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES 32 34 . . . . . . . . . . . 3. CHAPTER . . CONFIGURING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE . . . . . DATE . . . . . . AND . . . . . .TIME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 .............. 3.1. USING THE TIMEDATECTL COMMAND 3.2. USING THE DATE COMMAND 36 39 3.3. USING THE HWCLOCK COMMAND 3.4. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES 41 43 . . . . . . . . . . . 4. CHAPTER . . .MANAGING . . . . . . . . . . . . USERS . . . . . . . .AND . . . . .GROUPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 .............. 4.1. INTRODUCTION TO USERS AND GROUPS 4.2. MANAGING USERS IN A GRAPHICAL ENVIRONMENT 45 46 4.3. USING COMMAND-LINE TOOLS 4.4. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES 48 57 . . . . . . . . . . . 5. CHAPTER . . ACCESS . . . . . . . . . .CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . .LISTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59 .............. 5.1. MOUNTING FILE SYSTEMS 5.2. SETTING ACCESS ACLS 5.3. SETTING DEFAULT ACLS 5.4. RETRIEVING ACLS 59 59 61 61 5.5. ARCHIVING FILE SYSTEMS WITH ACLS 5.6. COMPATIBILITY WITH OLDER SYSTEMS 5.7. ACL REFERENCES 61 62 63 .CHAPTER . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . .GAINING . . . . . . . . . PRIVILEGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64 .............. 6.1. CONFIGURING ADMINISTRATIVE ACCESS USING THE SU UTILITY 64 6.2. CONFIGURING ADMINISTRATIVE ACCESS USING THE SUDO UTILITY 6.3. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES 65 67 . . . . . . .II.. .SUBSCRIPTION PART . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AND . . . . . .SUPPORT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68 .............. .CHAPTER . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . REGISTERING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE . . . . . SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . .AND . . . . .MANAGING . . . . . . . . . . . . SUBSCRIPTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69 .............. 7.1. REGISTERING THE SYSTEM AND ATTACHING SUBSCRIPTIONS 69 7.2. MANAGING SOFTWARE REPOSITORIES 70 7.3. REMOVING SUBSCRIPTIONS 70 1 System Administrator's Guide 7.4. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES 71 .CHAPTER . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . .ACCESSING . . . . . . . . . . . . .SUPPORT . . . . . . . . . . USING . . . . . . . .THE . . . . .RED . . . . HAT . . . . . SUPPORT . . . . . . . . . . . TOOL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72 .............. 8.1. INSTALLING THE RED HAT SUPPORT TOOL 72 8.2. REGISTERING THE RED HAT SUPPORT TOOL USING THE COMMAND LINE 72 8.3. USING THE RED HAT SUPPORT TOOL IN INTERACTIVE SHELL MODE 72 8.4. CONFIGURING THE RED HAT SUPPORT TOOL 8.5. OPENING AND UPDATING SUPPORT CASES USING INTERACTIVE MODE 8.6. VIEWING SUPPORT CASES ON THE COMMAND LINE 8.7. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES 72 74 76 76 . . . . . . .III. PART . . INSTALLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . .AND . . . . . MANAGING . . . . . . . . . . . . .SOFTWARE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77 .............. . . . . . . . . . . . 9. CHAPTER . . .YUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78 .............. 9.1. CHECKING FOR AND UPDATING PACKAGES 9.2. WORKING WITH PACKAGES 9.3. WORKING WITH PACKAGE GROUPS 9.4. WORKING WITH TRANSACTION HISTORY 78 83 91 95 9.5. CONFIGURING YUM AND YUM REPOSITORIES 9.6. YUM PLUG-INS 9.7. AUTOMATICALLY REFRESHING PACKAGE DATABASE AND DOWNLOADING UPDATES WITH YUMCRON 101 113 9.8. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES 119 116 . . . . . . .IV. PART . . .INFRASTRUCTURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SERVICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .120 ............... . . . . . . . . . . . 10. CHAPTER . . . MANAGING . . . . . . . . . . . . .SERVICES . . . . . . . . . . .WITH . . . . . .SYSTEMD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121 .............. 10.1. INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEMD 10.2. MANAGING SYSTEM SERVICES 121 124 10.3. WORKING WITH SYSTEMD TARGETS 132 10.4. SHUTTING DOWN, SUSPENDING, AND HIBERNATING THE SYSTEM 10.5. CONTROLLING SYSTEMD ON A REMOTE MACHINE 136 138 10.6. CREATING AND MODIFYING SYSTEMD UNIT FILES 10.7. ADDITIONAL CONSIDERATIONS WHILE MANAGING SERVICES 139 155 10.8. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES 157 . . . . . . . . . . . 11. CHAPTER . . .CONFIGURING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A. .SYSTEM . . . . . . . . .FOR . . . . .ACCESSIBILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .160 ............... 11.1. CONFIGURING THE BRLTTY SERVICE 11.2. SWITCH ON ALWAYS SHOW UNIVERSAL ACCESS MENU 160 163 11.3. ENABLING THE FESTIVAL SPEECH SYNTHESIS SYSTEM 164 .CHAPTER . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . OPENSSH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .167 ............... 12.1. THE SSH PROTOCOL 167 12.2. CONFIGURING OPENSSH 170 12.3. OPENSSH CLIENTS 12.4. MORE THAN A SECURE SHELL 178 182 12.5. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES 183 . . . . . . . . . . . 13. CHAPTER . . . TIGERVNC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .185 ............... 13.1. VNC SERVER 13.2. SHARING AN EXISTING DESKTOP 185 189 13.3. VNC VIEWER 13.4. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES 189 192 . . . . . . .V. PART . . SERVERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .194 ............... 2 Table of Contents . . . . . . . . . . . 14. CHAPTER . . . WEB . . . . . .SERVERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .195 ............... 14.1. THE APACHE HTTP SERVER 195 . . . . . . . . . . . 15. CHAPTER . . . MAIL . . . . . .SERVERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .220 ............... 15.1. EMAIL PROTOCOLS 15.2. EMAIL PROGRAM CLASSIFICATIONS 220 223 15.3. MAIL TRANSPORT AGENTS 224 15.4. MAIL DELIVERY AGENTS 15.5. MAIL USER AGENTS 235 242 15.6. CONFIGURING MAIL SERVER WITH ANTISPAM AND ANTIVIRUS 15.7. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES 243 245 . . . . . . . . . . . 16. CHAPTER . . . FILE . . . . . AND . . . . . .PRINT . . . . . . .SERVERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .248 ............... 16.1. SAMBA 248 16.2. FTP 16.3. PRINT SETTINGS 302 309 . . . . . . . . . . . 17. CHAPTER . . . DATABASE . . . . . . . . . . . . SERVERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .328 ............... 17.1. MARIADB 328 . . . . . . . . . . . 18. CHAPTER . . . CONFIGURING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NTP . . . . . USING . . . . . . . THE . . . . . CHRONY . . . . . . . . . .SUITE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .331 ............... 18.1. INTRODUCTION TO THE CHRONY SUITE 18.2. UNDERSTANDING CHRONY AND ITS CONFIGURATION 331 333 18.3. USING CHRONY 18.4. SETTING UP CHRONY FOR DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS 338 343 18.5. USING CHRONYC 344 18.6. CHRONY WITH HW TIMESTAMPING 18.7. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES 344 348 . . . . . . . . . . . 19. CHAPTER . . . CONFIGURING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NTP . . . . . USING . . . . . . . NTPD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349 ................ 19.1. INTRODUCTION TO NTP 19.2. NTP STRATA 349 349 19.3. UNDERSTANDING NTP 350 19.4. UNDERSTANDING THE DRIFT FILE 19.5. UTC, TIMEZONES, AND DST 351 351 19.6. AUTHENTICATION OPTIONS FOR NTP 19.7. MANAGING THE TIME ON VIRTUAL MACHINES 351 352 19.8. UNDERSTANDING LEAP SECONDS 19.9. UNDERSTANDING THE NTPD CONFIGURATION FILE 352 352 19.10. UNDERSTANDING THE NTPD SYSCONFIG FILE 354 19.11. DISABLING CHRONY 354 19.12. CHECKING IF THE NTP DAEMON IS INSTALLED 355 19.13. INSTALLING THE NTP DAEMON (NTPD) 19.14. CHECKING THE STATUS OF NTP 355 355 19.15. CONFIGURE THE FIREWALL TO ALLOW INCOMING NTP PACKETS 355 19.16. CONFIGURE NTPDATE SERVERS 356 19.17. CONFIGURE NTP 357 19.18. CONFIGURING THE HARDWARE CLOCK UPDATE 19.19. CONFIGURING CLOCK SOURCES 362 364 19.20. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES 365 . . . . . . . . . . . 20. CHAPTER . . . .CONFIGURING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .PTP . . . . .USING . . . . . . .PTP4L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .367 ............... 20.1. INTRODUCTION TO PTP 367 20.2. USING PTP 369 20.3. USING PTP WITH MULTIPLE INTERFACES 371 3 System Administrator's Guide 20.4. SPECIFYING A CONFIGURATION FILE 20.5. USING THE PTP MANAGEMENT CLIENT 373 373 20.6. SYNCHRONIZING THE CLOCKS 374 20.7. VERIFYING TIME SYNCHRONIZATION 375 20.8. SERVING PTP TIME WITH NTP 377 20.9. SERVING NTP TIME WITH PTP 20.10. SYNCHRONIZE TO PTP OR NTP TIME USING TIMEMASTER 378 378 20.11. IMPROVING ACCURACY 382 20.12. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES 382 . . . . . . .VI. PART . . .MONITORING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .AND . . . . .AUTOMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .383 ............... . . . . . . . . . . . 21. CHAPTER . . . SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . MONITORING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TOOLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384 ................ 21.1. VIEWING SYSTEM PROCESSES 384 21.2. VIEWING MEMORY USAGE 21.3. VIEWING CPU USAGE 387 389 21.4. VIEWING BLOCK DEVICES AND FILE SYSTEMS 389 21.5. VIEWING HARDWARE INFORMATION 394 21.6. CHECKING FOR HARDWARE ERRORS 397 21.7. MONITORING PERFORMANCE WITH NET-SNMP 21.8. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES 398 411 . . . . . . . . . . . 22. CHAPTER . . . .OPENLMI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .413 ............... 22.1. ABOUT OPENLMI 413 22.2. INSTALLING OPENLMI 414 22.3. CONFIGURING SSL CERTIFICATES FOR OPENPEGASUS 416 22.4. USING LMISHELL 420 22.5. USING OPENLMI SCRIPTS 22.6. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES 456 457 . . . . . . . . . . . 23. CHAPTER . . . .VIEWING . . . . . . . . . .AND . . . . .MANAGING . . . . . . . . . . . . LOG . . . . . .FILES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459 ................ 23.1. LOCATING LOG FILES 459 23.2. BASIC CONFIGURATION OF RSYSLOG 459 23.3. USING THE NEW CONFIGURATION FORMAT 475 23.4. WORKING WITH QUEUES IN RSYSLOG 23.5. CONFIGURING RSYSLOG ON A LOGGING SERVER 477 486 23.6. USING RSYSLOG MODULES 489 23.7. INTERACTION OF RSYSLOG AND JOURNAL 496 23.8. STRUCTURED LOGGING WITH RSYSLOG 497 23.9. DEBUGGING RSYSLOG 23.10. USING THE JOURNAL 500 500 23.11. MANAGING LOG FILES IN A GRAPHICAL ENVIRONMENT 506 23.12. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES 511 . . . . . . . . . . . 24. CHAPTER . . . .AUTOMATING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . TASKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513 ............... 24.1. SCHEDULING A RECURRING JOB USING CRON 513 24.2. SCHEDULING A RECURRING ASYNCHRONOUS JOB USING ANACRON 24.3. SCHEDULING A JOB TO RUN AT A SPECIFIC TIME USING AT 516 518 24.4. SCHEDULING A JOB TO RUN ON SYSTEM LOAD DROP USING BATCH 520 24.5. SCHEDULING A JOB TO RUN ON NEXT BOOT USING A SYSTEMD UNIT FILE 521 24.6. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES 523 . . . . . . . . . . . 25. CHAPTER . . . .AUTOMATIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . BUG . . . . . REPORTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . .TOOL . . . . . . (ABRT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .524 ............... 25.1. INTRODUCTION TO ABRT 25.2. INSTALLING ABRT AND STARTING ITS SERVICES 4 524 524 Table of Contents 25.3. CONFIGURING ABRT 527 25.4. DETECTING SOFTWARE PROBLEMS 533 25.5. HANDLING DETECTED PROBLEMS 535 25.6. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES 537 . . . . . . .VII. PART . . . KERNEL . . . . . . . . . CUSTOMIZATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .WITH . . . . . .BOOTLOADER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .539 ............... . . . . . . . . . . . 26. CHAPTER . . . .WORKING . . . . . . . . . . .WITH . . . . . .GRUB ......2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 540 ................ 26.1. INTRODUCTION TO GRUB 2 26.2. CONFIGURING GRUB 2 540 541 26.3. MAKING TEMPORARY CHANGES TO A GRUB 2 MENU 541 26.4. MAKING PERSISTENT CHANGES TO A GRUB 2 MENU USING THE GRUBBY TOOL 542 26.5. CUSTOMIZING THE GRUB 2 CONFIGURATION FILE 544 26.6. PROTECTING GRUB 2 WITH A PASSWORD 26.7. REINSTALLING GRUB 2 548 550 26.8. UPGRADING FROM GRUB LEGACY TO GRUB 2 551 26.9. GRUB 2 OVER A SERIAL CONSOLE 553 26.10. TERMINAL MENU EDITING DURING BOOT 555 26.11. UNIFIED EXTENSIBLE FIRMWARE INTERFACE (UEFI) SECURE BOOT 26.12. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES 560 561 . . . . . . .VIII. PART . . . .SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . BACKUP . . . . . . . . . .AND . . . . .RECOVERY . . . . . ....
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