History Ch3 outline.docx - History 20 7 September 2017...

This preview shows page 1 - 3 out of 5 pages.

History 20 7 September, 2017 Chapter 3 Outline: Transcendental Reality Developing the Spiritual Traditions of India and Southwest Asia: 800–200 b.c.e. In China, India, Southwest Asia, Hellas (Greek country), deep changes in thought, belief, social organization, government occurred. The important point is change, and some historians call this era an axis era. During the six centuries, the Chinese, Indian, Southwestern Asian, and Hellenic (a name uniquely identified by ancient Greeks) developed a tradition and institution that is the core of civilization. These developments became prominent, especially during the 6th and 5th centuries. The Emergence of Brahminical Hinduism For early Greeks and Persians, the early Aryans religion in India centered on the sacrifice of animals, especially horses and cattle. Early Arian society was led by warriors. But by the time of Rig Veda's composition of "Hymn to Pursha", the Brahmins who compose and cite hymns are divided into three other classes: Rajanyas or Kshatriyas (rulers and warriors) and Vaisyas (labor); Claimed superiority of Sudra (slave and servant). The Brahmins won at least a religious plane and its victory appeared in the only Indian religious social system known as caste. The Sanskrit word of caste is Varna meaning "color" and may derive from an attempt to distinguish it from the earliest of Arian's indigenous people of the dark skin of the subcontinent. Whatever its origins, sometimes in the Axial era, varna came to mean, as far as Brahmin priests were concerned, the four human groups living in the Hindus (Indian) world and the Brahms people standing at the top this hierarchy. The four castes became genetically and permanently theoretically, and usually in fact they dominated the most intimate aspects of each member's life. On a cosmic level, caste defines one’s place in a cycle of hard cycling (samsara) as each soul travels from incarnation to incarnation with the aim of returning to release (moksha) and World Soul (Brahman). At a certain level, Hinduism can be defined as the whole body of Indian religious beliefs and lifestyles, centered on the Cast system in which the Brahmins hold the highest rank. However, at a deeper level, Hinduism is defined. In fact, it is wrong to think as one of today's beliefs and customs thousands of years ago. On the contrary, it has always been a fluid mass of religious and social expression. The most abstract and speculative thinking about the essential nature of God's reality and old-fashioned folk ritual.
Image of page 1

Subscribe to view the full document.

Brahmins is both polytheistic and monotheistic and has thousands of gods and
Image of page 2
Image of page 3

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern