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C HAPTER 13 – T HE F EDERAL B UREAUCRACY : A DMINISTERING THE G OVERNMENT Bureaucracy is an inevitable consequence of complexity and scale The bureaucracy is expected simultaneously to respond to the direction of partisan officials and to administers programs fairly and competently Bureaucrats naturally take on “agency point of view.” They seek to promote their agency’s programs and power. Although agencies are subject to oversight by the president, Congress, and the judiciary, bureaucrats are able to exercise power in their own right F EDERAL A DMINISTRATION : F ORM , P ERSONNEL , AND A CTIVITIES Bureaucracy is found where there is a need to manage large numbers of people and tasks Bureaucracy o A system of organization and control that is based on three principals: hierarchal authority, job specialization, and formalized rules Hierarchical authority o A chain of command whereby the officials and units at the top of a bureaucracy have authority over those in the middle, who in turn control those at the bottom o Speeds action by reducing conflict over the power to make decisions Job specialization o The responsibilities of each job position are explicitly defined and there is a precise division of labor within the organization o Yields efficiency because each individual is required to concentrate on a particular job Formalized rules o The standardized procedures and established regulations by which a bureaucracy conducts its operations o Enable workers to make quick and consistent judgments
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Most efficient means of getting people to work together on tasks of great magnitude T HE F EDERAL B UREAUCRACY IN A MERICAN S D AILY L IVES Roughly 2.5 million employees More immediate impact on Americans’ daily lives T YPES OF A DMINISTRATIVE O RGANIZATIONS Federal bureaucracy is organization along policy lines Five general forms: cabinet department, independent agency, regulatory agency, government corporation, presidential commission Cabinet Departments 15 Cabinet (executive) departments o Major administration units Head of each department is a secretary Vary greatly in their visibility, size, and importance Each cabinet has responsibility for a general policy area Carried out by semiautonomous operating units Interdependent Agencies Independent agencies o Resemble the cabinet but have a narrower area of responsibility
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