psy 395 final rev. - Review Sheet for Exam Three PSY 395...

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Review Sheet for Exam Three PSY 395 Fall 2006 Important: This sheet provides guidelines for your exam preparation. This is not an exhaustive list of the topics covered on Exam 3 but it should help focus your attention on the major issues. Exam Format and Coverage : 40 Questions. Each question is worth 2.5 points for a total of 100 points. Exam 3 will be administered in our regular classroom on 14 December at 10 am (Thursday of Finals Week). The exam will cover the following material: Textbook Chapters: 11-15, 17 & 20 Lectures: 17-23 Labs: 8 to 10 Test Preparation Guidelines : Read the assigned chapters and focus on mastering key terms and major concepts. You will probably receive a low score on the exam if you do not read the text! Center your preparation of lecture material on the topics highlighted in the review sections of each lecture. Major Lecture Topics Internal Validity, Experiments, and Laboratory Studies Three Conditions for Causality - X and Y must covary - X must preceed Y - There are no alternative explanations Two Disciplines of Psychology (Cronbach, 1957) – See also Lab 8 Correlational – • Interest is placed on individual differences. One goal is to statistically predict variation. • Many factors that may affect the DV are free to vary. • Sophisticated tools for data analysis, not necessarily matched by theoretical sophistication. Experimental – • Derives hypotheses explicitly from theoretical premises and tests them. • Concerned with between-treatment variance. Did an effect occur? • Tries to control for individual differences. Often see “variation within treatments” as a nuisance. - individual variance = error variance Definition of Internal Validity (i.e. Local Molar Causal Validity) Local : Limited to the context of the
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particular treatments, manipulations, samples, etc under study. Molar : All experiments test treatments or manipulations that are a complex package. Causal Validity : Validity of the inference that X Causes Y in this setting. • This is internal validity! Comparison of Internal Validity with External Validity and Measurement Validity Classic Threats to Internal Validity (see pages 245 to 252) - Selection – pre existing differences between conditions - Maturation – change in participants during the study - History – confounding event - Instrumentation – change in measures -
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