Chapter 10 Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis – when sunlight is used to manufacture carbohydrate
Autotrophs – organisms that make all of their own food from ions and
simple molecules. i.e. plants
Heterotrophs – non-photosynthetic organisms such as humans and fungi
and the bacterium E. coli who obtain the sugars and other macromolecules
they need from other organisms
0 + light energy = (CH
0 + O
from light is
transformed to chemical energy in the C-H bonds of carbohydrates.
Van Neil’s purple sulfur bacteria experiment proves that CO
not combine directly and that O
is not released from photosynthesis.
comes from H
Calvin cycle – the light-independent component of photosynthesis]
Reduce carbon dioxide and result in the production of sugar
Takes place in the stroma of chloroplasts
Electrons released during the formation of O
are transferred to NADP+
and form NADPH and ATP.
The reactions during the Calvin Cycle use the electrons from NADPH and
potential energy from ATP to reduce CO
Thylakoids – vesicle-like structures which often contain interconnected
stacks called grana, found on the interior of the chloroplast
Lumen – the space inside of thylakoid
Stroma – fluid filled space between the thyladkoids and the inner
Thylakoid membranes are abundant in pigments
Pigments are molecules that absorb only certain wavelengths of
light – other wavelengths are transmitted or reflected.
Chlorophyll is the most abundant pigment found in the thylakoid
membrane, it absorbs blue and red light and reflects green light.
Proplastids – the colorless organelles from which chloroplasts are derived
Plastids are a family of double membrane-bound organelles found
3 major types of plastids
Responsible for photosynthesis
Often function are energy storehouses
Are brightly colored because they synthesize
and hoard large amounts of orange, yellow
or red pigments in their vacuoles.
Electromagnetic energy in the form of sunlight is converted into chemical
energy in the C-H bonds of sugar
Wavelength – the distance between two successive wave crests,
determines the type of electromagnetic radiation. Shorter wave
lengths contain more energy
Electromagnetic spectrum – the range of wavelengths
visible light – electromagnetic radiation that humans can
see 400 to 710 nm
This is the end of the preview. Sign up
access the rest of the document.