The Cultural Landscape by Rubenstein Chapter 5: Languages Key Issue 1: Where Are Languages Distributed? Pages 142-149 ***Always keep your key term packet out whenever you take notes from Rubenstein. As the terms come up in the text, think through the significance of the term. 1.Definelanguage: 2.Define official language 3.Define language family 4.Define language branch 5.Definelanguage group: 6. Make brief notes on each of the following language families as you read about them in this section (i.e. how many people speak a language of that family, where spoken, common languages, etc.). See pages 146-149. a. Indo-European ● most widely used language family ● predominant in Europe, South Asia, and North and Latin America b. Sino-Tibetan ● predominant in China (1.3 billion population - world’s highest) and smaller countries in Southeast Asia ● no single chinese language - most common is mandarin (official language of China and Taiwan and one of the six official languages of the United Nations) ● 7 other Sinitic branch languages are spoken by at least 20 million is China - Wu, Min, Yue (Cantonese), JInyu, Xiang, Hakka, and Gan. c. Austronesian ● spoken by 6% of world population, mostly in Indonesia - world’s 4th populous country
The Cultural Landscape by Rubenstein Chapter 5: Languages ● Javanese - spoken by 85 million people d. Austro-Asiatic ● spoken by 2% of world population ● based in Southeast Asia ● Vietnamese - most spoken - is written like our roman alphabet ● Vietnamese alphabet was devised in the 17th century by Roman Catholic missionaries e. Tai Kadai ● was once classified in Sino-Tibetan ● spoken in Thailand and neighboring portions of China ● similarities with the Austronesian family have led some linguistic scholars to speculate that people speaking these languages may have migrated from the Philippines f. Japanese ● written in part with Chinese logograms, Japanese also uses two systems of phonetic symbols like western languages used either in place of the logograms or alongside them ● Chinese cultural traits have diffused into japanese including the writing of it g. Korean ● written in a system known as hankul (aka hangul or onmun)- each letter represents a sound ● more than half of the vocab derives from Chinese words ●
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