Chapter 11 notes

Chapter 11 notes - Chapter 11 The Cell Cycle I Mitosis and...

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Chapter 11 – The Cell Cycle I. Mitosis and the Cell Cycle a. Cell Division – new cells arise through the division of preexisting cells i. Gametes – sperm and eggs are male and female reproductive cells 1. cells split through Meiosis, the basis of sexual reproduction and genetic inheritance ii. Somatic cells – all other types of cells 1. Mitosis is a division of the genetic material that produces daughter cells that are genetically identical to their parent cell and is usually accompanied by cytokinesis, the division of the cytoplasm into the two daughter cells. a. Responsible for tissue repair, asexual reproduction, growth in multicellular organisms. b. Chromosome the threadlike structures observed in dividing cells made up in part of DNA. Consists of a single long DNA double helix that is wrapped around proteins in a highly organized manner. c. Embryos – newly developing individuals d. Growing cells cycle between a dividing phase called the mitotic phase and a non-dividing phase called interphase. i. Synthesis phase, for DNA synthesis e. Cell cycle is the orderly sequence of events that occurs from the formation of a eukaryotic cell, through the duplication of its chromosomes, to the time it undergoes division itself. i. Replication, or copying of the hereditary material in chromosomes ii. The partitioning of copied chromosomes to the two daughter cells. iii. G1 and G2 gaps exist to provide time to accomplish the tasks of growing organelles, etc. II. How does Mitosis take Place a. Eukaryotic chromosomes normally exist as extremely long, threadlike
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