Chapter 13 notes

Chapter 13 notes - Chapter 13 Notes Mendel and the Gene a...

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Chapter 13 Notes – Mendel and the Gene a. Mendel’s Experiments with a Single Trait Heredity – the transmission of traits from parents to offspring Trait – any characteristic of an individual ranging from overall height to the primary structure of a particular membrane protein. 1. Blending inheritance claimed that the traits observed in a mother and father blend together to form the traits observed in their offspring. 2. Inheritance of acquired characters claimed that traits present in parents are modified, through use, and passed on to their offspring in the modified form. Model organisms consist of individuals that are usually small, short lived, inexpensive to car for, prolific in producing offspring, and easy to manipulate experimentally. 1. Pisum sativum Genetics is the branch of biology that focuses on the inheritance of traits. Self-fertilization takes place when pollen from one flower falls on the female reproductive organ of that same flower. 1. Mendel cut off male organs and then pollinated the flower uses pollen from other flowers. Mendel studied peas that varied in seven traits: seed shape, seed color, pod shape, pod color, flower color, flower and pod position, and stem length. 1. Each trait existed in two forms. Phenotype – the observable features of an individual Pure line – consists of individuals that produce offspring identical to themselves when they are self-pollinated or crossed to another member of the same population. Parental generation produces F 1 generation which produces F 2 , etc. When Mendel performed a reciprocal cross (a set of matings where the mother’s phenotype in the first cross is the father’s phenotype in the second cross, and the father’s phenotype in the first cross is the mother’s phenotype in the second cross) he determined that it does not matter whether the genetic determinants for seed shape are located in the male or female parent. When Mendel crossed the F1 generation, he noticed a 3:1 relationship. Dominant and recessive genes were observed. 1. In genetics, the terms dominance and recessiveness refer only to which phenotype is observed in individuals carrying two different genetic determinants.
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This note was uploaded on 03/31/2008 for the course BIO 13 taught by Professor Mclaughlin during the Fall '07 term at Tufts.

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Chapter 13 notes - Chapter 13 Notes Mendel and the Gene a...

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