Ch23, 26,27 hw.docx - Ch23 The small amount of air that...

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Unformatted text preview: Ch23 The small amount of air that remains in the lungs even if they collapse is minimal volume. Parasympathetic innervation to the lings is from the vagus nerves. The vagus nerve is the primary nerve that innervates the larynx. The thin barrier that oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse across during gas exchange between the alveoli and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries is the respiratory membrane. Axons from lower motor neurons extend from the spinal cord and form both the phrenic nerves that innervate the diaphragm and intercostal nerves that innervate the intercostal muscles. The volume of air that enters and leaves the lungs can be measured with an instrument called a spirometer. Check the items that are found in mucus: Mucin, Immunoglobulin E, Lysozyme, Defensins, Immunoglobulin A The paired nasal bones form the bridge of the nose. A chronic condition known as asthma is characterized by episodes of bronchoconstriction coupled with wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, and excess pulmonary mucus. When the pharyngeal tonsil is enlarged, clinicians refer to it as the adenoids. Check the function that can be carried out by the respiratory system.: Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide, Passageway for air between the external environment and the alveoli of the lungs, Production of red blood cells, regulation of blood glucose levels. If tidal volume is 500mL, anatomic dead space is 125mL, and respiration rathe is 14 breaths per minute, alveolar ventilation would be 5.25 L/min. Place the respiration structures below in the order that air would pass through them as it moves from the outside to the inside of the body.: Gases move between the blood and tissue of the body during systemic gas exchange. Check the functions of lymph nodes in the lungs: - They collect carbon, dust particles, and pollutants - They are located within the connective tissue of the lung. - They are located around the bronchi and pleura. During quiet breathing, about two-thirds of the thoracic cavity volume change comes from contraction/movement of the diaphragm, and one-third comes from external intercostal movement. The bronchi, pulmonary vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves pass through the hilum, on the mediastinal surface of the lungs. Oxygen bound to hemoglobin is referred to as oxyhemoglobin Place these respiratory events in the correct order from the beginning to end. The lingula of the left lung is a projection from the superior lobs that is homologues to the middle lobe of the right lung, The wide _____ of the lung rests upon the diaphragm. Base The ____ lung is divided into superior, middle and inferior lobes. Right The ____ fissure separates the superior and inferior lobes of the left lung. Oblique The outer surface of each lung is tightly covered by ____. Visceral pleura A breathing rate that exceeds the body’s demand is called _____. Hyperventilation Which are potential causes of hyperventilation? Ascending to high altitude, a panic attack, conscious control breathing muscles T or F: Hyperventilation can substantially increase oxygen saturation in the blood. False Which of the following are consequences of hyperventilation? Hypocapnia, Respiratory alkalosis, Rising blood pH. A person hiking up to high altitudes may _____ in an attempt to gain more oxygen. Hyperventilate Low partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the brain causes. Constriction of blood vessels Tingling of the mouth and fingertips is a symptom that may accompany _____. Hyperventilation Which are terms to describe the types of hypoventilation? Hypopnea, bradypnea Which are potential consequences of hypoventilation? Hypoxia, Hypercapnia There are two forms of hypoventilation, _____ in which breathing is too slow, and _____ in which breathing is too shallow. Bradypnea, hypopnea Hypoventilation may cause blood pH to fall too low, a condition known as respiratory ________. Acidosis Which are symptoms of hypoventilation? Lethargy, headache, cyanosis T or F: Hyperpnea is another name for hyperventilation. False Which statement characterizes the effects of exercise on blood carbon dioxide? Carbon dioxide remains relatively constant during exercise. Which signals are thought to trigger hyperpnea during exercise? Signals form proprioceptors, Conscious anticipation of exercise, Motor output form the cerebral cortex Hypoventilation can cause oxygen levels to fall too low, a condition called _____. Carbon dioxide levels may rise too high, a condition called _____. Bronchodilation results when the smooth muscle of the bronchioles _____. Relaxes Pulmonary surfactant coats the inner alveolar surface to reduce surface tension and ____. Prevent their collapse The respiratory bronchioles and alveolar ducts contain small out pockets called _____. Alveoli The distal end of the alveolar duct terminates as a dilated _____ ______. Alveolar sac The lungs contain approximately _____ alveoli. 300-400 million The small openings in the walls between adjacent alveoli are called _____ ____. Alveolar pores The predominant alveolar cell is an alveolar _____ cell. Type l The cells that engulf microorganisms or particulate material that have reached the alveoli are called ______. Alveolar macrophages The respiratory membrane is the thin wall between the alveolar lumen and the _____. Blood Alveolar type ll cells secrete ____ _____. pulmonary surfactant The type of alveolar cell that promotes rapid gas diffusion across the alveolar wall is the _____. Alveolar type l cell Which are among the four continuous and simultaneous processes of respiration? Pulmonary ventilation, systemic gas exchange, alveolar gas exchange, gas transport Type of lung cancer with the tissue of origin: Squamous cell carcinoma: Cells of respiratory membrane Small cell carcinoma: neuroendocrine cells Adenocarcinoma: mucin producing cells A lubricating fluid found in the pleural cavity is ______ fluid. Serous Failure of the left ventricle may cause accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity. This condition is known as pleural _____. Effusion The lungs remain inflated despite their tendency to collapse. What is the reason for this? The negative intrapleural pressure relative to intrapulmonary pressure. Which is always higher, intrapulmonary pressure or intrapleural pressure? Intrapulmonary pressure A condition that occurs when free air gets into the pleural cavity is called a _____. pneumothorax The presence of free air in the pleural space sometimes causes the affected lung to deflate, a condition called ______. Atelectasis Which are functions of the larynx? Serves as a passageway for air, produces sound for speech, blocks food and drink form entering airway. The largest cartilage of the larynx is the _____ cartilage, which forms the anterior and lateral walls of the larynx. Thyroid The v-shaped anterior project of the thyroid cartilage is commonly called the _____ in males. Adams apple The cricoid cartilage is ____ to the thyroid cartilage. Inferior The large, spoon or leaf-shaped piece of elastic cartilage that helps prevent food and liquid form entering the larynx is the ____. Epiglottis The vocal folds are the ____ set of ligaments, in the larynx, that produce sound. Inferior The glottis refers to the ____ and the ____. Rima glottidis, vocal folds The vestibular folds are also called the _____ vocal cords. False Which are characteristics of the extrinsic muscles of the larynx? Originate in hyoid bone or sternum, help with swallowing, stabilize larynx What factors determine the characteristics of sound as they pass though the vocal folds? Length of cords, tension of cords Which anatomical structures aid sound production? Nasal cavity, tongue, paranasal sinuses, teeth, lips An inflammation of the larynx is _____. Laryngitis Both the growth of the thyroid cartilage and the longer and thicker vocal folds in mature ____ help to explain why males typically have deeper voices than ____. Males, females Then frequency of sound waves is called _____ and is determined by the amount of tension on the vocal folds. Pitch _____ depends on the force of the air passing across the vocal cords. Loudness The trachea descends through the neck into the ___ from the ___ to the main bronchi. Mediastinum; larynx The ____ is also known as the “windpipe” trachea There are 15-20 C-shaped ____ cartilages that support. The anterior and lateral walls of the trachea. Tracheal Incomplete rings of ____ cartilage support the wall of the primary bronchi to ensure that they remain open. Hyaline T or F: The tracheotomy is one of the oldest surgical procedures in medicine. True The ____ primary bronchus enters the lung more vertically and is wider and shorter than the other one. Right At the level of the sternal angle, the trachea bifurcates into the right and left ____ ____. Main bronchi The left lung has _2_ secondary bronchi since it has _2_ lobes; the right lung has _3_ lobes and _3_ secondary bronchi. T or F: lobar bronchi further divide into primary bronchi. False The ___ bronchioles are the final segment of the conduction pathway. Terminal This type of bronchitis results from long term exposure to irritants. Chronic Which drugs are useful in treating asthma? Inhaled steroids, allergy shots, oral steroids What prevents small bronchioles form collapsing? Their small diameter The bronchioles are no longer lined with pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium as the bronchi are but are lined with ___ epithelium. Simple columnar Which characteristics are shared among all the bronchi? A complete ring of smooth muscle is found between the mucosa and the cartilage, the epithelium changes from pseudostratified ciliated columnar to ciliated columnar as the bronchi get smaller, the amount of cartilage decreases as the bronchi decrease in diameter. Ch23 Review: Respiration normally requires the a. respiratory system. b. muscular system. c. nervous system. d. All of these are correct. Arrange the following from largest to smallest for the divisions of the lung a. lobes, bronchopulmonary segments, lobules, alveoli b. lobes, alveoli, lobules, bronchopulmonary segments c. alveoli, lobules, bronchopulmonary segments, lobes d. lobules, bronchopulmonary segments, lobes, alveoli The lungs do not normally collapse because a. they are attached to the thoracic wall with parietal ligaments. b. they are attached to the thoracic wall with the visceral ligaments. c. the pressure in the intrapleural cavity is lower than the pressure in the intrapulmonary space ( lungs). d. the pressure in the intrapleural cavity is greater than the pressure in the intrapulmonary space (lungs). Which of the following correctly represents the sequence of events associated with the thoracic cavity to produce inspiration? a. muscle contraction, increase in volume, decrease in pressure b. decrease in pressure, increase in volume, muscle contraction c. muscle contraction, decrease in pressure, increase in volume d. increase in volume, muscle contraction, decrease in pressure The diaphragm and the external intercostals relax. Volume decreases and pressure increases in the thoracic cavity. This (by itself) describes a. quiet inspiration. b. quiet expiration. c. forced inspiration. d. forced expiration. Which areas of the brain contains the respiratory center? a. medulla oblongata and hypothalamus b. hypothalamus and pons c. medulla oblongata and pons d. medulla oblongata and cerebrum The amount of which substance in the blood normally sets the respiratory pace? a. oxygen b. carbon dioxide c. hydrogen gas (H2) d. bicarbonate The movement of oxygen from the blood into the systemic cells is referred to as a. pulmonary ventilation. b. alveolar gas exchange. c. systemic gas exchange. d. gas transport. Most carbon dioxide is transported in the blood a. dissolved in the plasma as carbon dioxide. b. in association with hemoglobin. c. as bicarbonate ion. d. in combination with oxygen. All of the following are accurate statements about hemoglobin except a. hemoglobin carries oxygen on the Fe ion. b. hemoglobin carries carbon dioxide on the globin. c. hemoglobin carries only a small portion of the total carbon dioxide in the blood (less than 25%). d. hemoglobin releases oxygen at the level of the cell, making hemoglobin more saturated. Which organ is located in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen? A.Liver B.Spleen C.Descending colon D.appendix The____cells of the stomach secrete hydrochloric acid (HCI) A.Cheif B.Parietal C.Mucous D.GWhich of the following is an unregulated process in the digestive tract? A. Secretion of cholecystokinin (CCK) by the deodenal mucosa B. Absorption of amino acids across epithelium of the small intestine C. Release of bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) by pancreatic duct cells D. Peristalsis in the stomach Which organ (or part of an organ) is retroperitoneal? A. Stomach B. Transverse colon C. Descending colon D. ileum Pancreatic Juice contains A. HCO3- and digestive enzymes B. Bile C. Bile and digestive enzymes D. gastrin hormone Bile is conducted through the A. lacteals B. accessory pancreatic duct C. cystic duct D. teniae coli Digestion of proteins begins in the A. oral cavity B. Stomach C. small intestine D. large intestine Micells help promote A. denaturation of proteins B. Digestion and absorption of lipids C. storage of digested carbohydrates D. increased degradation of carbohydrates Hydrolytic enzymes that chemically digest most of our ingested food are secreted by the A. Liver B. Small intestine C. pancreas D. salivary glands Most of the absorption of our digested food occurs within the A. large intestine B. pancreas C. small intestine D. esophagus Ch26 Answer the following True/False questions regarding the structure and location of the esophagus. 1. The esophagus extends from the nasopharynx to the stomach. False 2. The esophagus is about 25 meters long. False 3. The esophagus lies anterior to the trachea. False 4. The muscularis of the esophagus is different from other parts of the digestive tract because the superior part of the esophagus consists of skeletal muscle. True 5. The esophagus contains both an upper and a lower esophageal sphincter that regulates the movement of materials into and out of the esophagus. True 6. The esophagus contains numerous mucous glands that produce a thick, lubricating mucus that coats the inner surface of the esophagus. True Match the structure of the small intestine with its function. Intestinal glands Contain enteroendocrine cells Circular folds Slow passage of material Enteroendocrine cells Secrete digestive hormones Submucosal glands Secrete alkaline mucus Which organs and accessory structures are considered part of the upper GI tract?: Pharynx, Duodenum, stomach, esophagus Check all the line the mucosa of the large intestine: Simple columnar epithelium, goblet cells, intestinal glands Match the secretory cell of the stomach with its secretion: -Acidic mucin = Mucous neck cell -Pepsinogen = chief cell -Gastrin = Enteroendocrine cell -Hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor = parietal cell -Mucin = surface mucous cell In what ways is the large intestine histologically different from the small intestine?: Has smooth mucosa, Lacks intestinal villi Select all that are major functions of the muscularis layer of the GI tract.: Peristalsis, mixing What are the names of anatomic structures in the oral cavity?: Uvula, hard palate, fauces Which of the following structures are anatomically part of each tooth?: Root, pulp, enamel Match the type of movement that occurs in the large intestine with its description: -Churning and distal movement of material = haustral churning -Weak repplelike muscle contractions = peristalsis -Powerful contractions; propels material towards rectum = mass movements Which are tunics (layers) that make up the gastrointestinal wall?: Adventia or serosa, muscularis, mucosa, submucosa Which of the following are considered small intestine brush border enzymes participating in carbohydrate digestion?: Dextrinase, lactase, sucrase Check all that are character of the esophagus: -The mucosa is composed of thick, nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium -The two layers of muscle in the superior one-third of the muscularis are skeletal. What are the primary hormones that participate in the regulation of the processes of digestion?: Gastrin, Cholecystokinin (CCK), Secretin Match the phase of swallowing with the correct events: 1. Initiated by stimulation of tactile receptors in the oropharynx Pharyngeal phase 2. Peristalsis moves food bolus onward Esophageal phase 3. The lower esophageal sphincter relaxes Esophageal phase 4. Begins with elevation of the soft palate Pharyngeal phase 5. Food bolus forced into the oropharynx Voluntary phase 6. The upper esophageal sphincter relaxes Pharyngeal phase 7. Food bolus pushed by tongue against the hard palate Voluntary phase Bacteria in the large intestine produce vitamins, such as B and K. Match the segment of the colon with its description: -Originates at the right colic flexure; is intraperitoneal = Transverse colon -Terminates at the rectum; is intraperitoneal = sigmoid colon -Originates at the left colic flexure; is retroperitoneal = Descending colon -Originates at the ileocecal valve; is retroperitoneal = ascending colon In which gastrointestinal tunic are general receptors located: submucosa, musclaris, mucosa Check all that are function of the esophagus: Movement of a bolus of food the pharynx to the stomach & Prevents materials from returning from the stomach What are the names of the individual mesenteries associated with specific GI organs?: Mesocolon, greater omentum, falciform ligament Which of the following general receptors are found within the GI tract?: Chemoreceptors, mechanoreceptors Which organs are componets of the lower gastrointestinal tract?: Large intestine, liver, small intestine Which organs or parts of organs are considered to be retroperitoneal?: Duodenum, pancreases, ascending and descending colon What are the serous membranes of the GI tract called?: visceral peritoneum, parietal peritoneum, visceral pleura Match each macromolecule below with the monomer to which it is broken down by chemical digestion: -Carbohydrates = monosaccharides -fats = monoglycerides and fatty acids -nucleic acids = nucleotides -proteins = amino acids The digestive system includes the organs that _____ the food, transport the ingested material, digest the material into smaller usable components, ____ the necessary digested nutrients into the bloodstream, and expel the waste products form the body. Ingest, Absorb The biliary apparatus is a network of thin ducts that carry bile form the liver and gallbladder to the ____. Duodenum Bile and pancreatic juice mix in the hepatopancreatic ____ prior to emptying into the duodenum via the major duodenal _____. Ampulla, papilla The liver covered by a ____ tissue capsule and a layer of ___ peritoneum, except for a small region on its diaphragmatic surface called the bare area. Connective, visceral In a cross section, a hepatic lobule looks like a side view of a bicycle wheel. A the circumference of the wheel where the tire would be, are several ____ triads that are usually equidistant apart. Portal The sinusoids are lined with stellate cells called ____ cells. Reticuloendothelial The ___ concentrates bile produced by the ____ and stores this concentrate until it is needed for digestion. gallbladder, liver Bile travels form the ____ hepatic duct through the cystic duct to be stored in the gallbladder; stored bile travels back through the ____ duct for conduction to the small intestine stored bile travels back through the ____ duct for conduction to the small intestine. Common, Cystic The pancreases is referred to as a mixed gland because it exhibits both ___ and exocrine functions. Endocrine The large intestine originates at the ____ junction and terminates at the anus. Ileocecal The initial or first region of the large intestine is a blind sac called t...
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