Unformatted text preview: Ch23 The small amount of air that remains in the lungs even if they collapse is minimal
volume. Parasympathetic innervation to the lings is from the vagus nerves. The vagus nerve is the primary nerve that innervates the larynx. The thin barrier that oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse across during gas exchange
between the alveoli and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries is the respiratory
membrane. Axons from lower motor neurons extend from the spinal cord and form both the phrenic
nerves that innervate the diaphragm and intercostal nerves that innervate the
intercostal muscles. The volume of air that enters and leaves the lungs can be measured with an instrument
called a spirometer. Check the items that are found in mucus: Mucin, Immunoglobulin E, Lysozyme,
Defensins, Immunoglobulin A The paired nasal bones form the bridge of the nose. A chronic condition known as asthma is characterized by episodes of
bronchoconstriction coupled with wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, and excess
pulmonary mucus. When the pharyngeal tonsil is enlarged, clinicians refer to it as the adenoids. Check the function that can be carried out by the respiratory system.: Exchange of
oxygen and carbon dioxide, Passageway for air between the external environment and
the alveoli of the lungs, Production of red blood cells, regulation of blood glucose levels. If tidal volume is 500mL, anatomic dead space is 125mL, and respiration rathe is 14
breaths per minute, alveolar ventilation would be 5.25 L/min. Place the respiration structures below in the order that air would pass through them as
it moves from the outside to the inside of the body.: Gases move between the blood and tissue of the body during systemic gas exchange. Check the functions of lymph nodes in the lungs:
- They collect carbon, dust particles, and pollutants
- They are located within the connective tissue of the lung.
- They are located around the bronchi and pleura.
During quiet breathing, about two-thirds of the thoracic cavity volume change comes
from contraction/movement of the diaphragm, and one-third comes from external
The bronchi, pulmonary vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves pass through the hilum, on
the mediastinal surface of the lungs.
Oxygen bound to hemoglobin is referred to as oxyhemoglobin
Place these respiratory events in the correct order from the beginning to end. The lingula of the left lung is a projection from the superior lobs that is homologues to
the middle lobe of the right lung, The wide _____ of the lung rests upon the diaphragm. Base
The ____ lung is divided into superior, middle and inferior lobes. Right
The ____ fissure separates the superior and inferior lobes of the left lung. Oblique
The outer surface of each lung is tightly covered by ____. Visceral pleura
A breathing rate that exceeds the body’s demand is called _____. Hyperventilation Which are potential causes of hyperventilation? Ascending to high altitude, a panic
attack, conscious control breathing muscles
T or F: Hyperventilation can substantially increase oxygen saturation in the blood. False
Which of the following are consequences of hyperventilation? Hypocapnia, Respiratory
alkalosis, Rising blood pH.
A person hiking up to high altitudes may _____ in an attempt to gain more oxygen.
Low partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the brain causes. Constriction of blood vessels
Tingling of the mouth and fingertips is a symptom that may accompany _____.
Which are terms to describe the types of hypoventilation? Hypopnea, bradypnea
Which are potential consequences of hypoventilation? Hypoxia, Hypercapnia
There are two forms of hypoventilation, _____ in which breathing is too slow, and _____
in which breathing is too shallow. Bradypnea, hypopnea
Hypoventilation may cause blood pH to fall too low, a condition known as respiratory
Which are symptoms of hypoventilation? Lethargy, headache, cyanosis
T or F: Hyperpnea is another name for hyperventilation. False
Which statement characterizes the effects of exercise on blood carbon dioxide? Carbon
dioxide remains relatively constant during exercise.
Which signals are thought to trigger hyperpnea during exercise? Signals form
proprioceptors, Conscious anticipation of exercise, Motor output form the cerebral
Hypoventilation can cause oxygen levels to fall too low, a condition called _____. Carbon
dioxide levels may rise too high, a condition called _____.
Bronchodilation results when the smooth muscle of the bronchioles _____. Relaxes
Pulmonary surfactant coats the inner alveolar surface to reduce surface tension and
____. Prevent their collapse
The respiratory bronchioles and alveolar ducts contain small out pockets called _____.
The distal end of the alveolar duct terminates as a dilated _____ ______. Alveolar sac
The lungs contain approximately _____ alveoli. 300-400 million
The small openings in the walls between adjacent alveoli are called _____ ____. Alveolar
The predominant alveolar cell is an alveolar _____ cell. Type l
The cells that engulf microorganisms or particulate material that have reached the
alveoli are called ______. Alveolar macrophages
The respiratory membrane is the thin wall between the alveolar lumen and the _____.
Alveolar type ll cells secrete ____ _____. pulmonary surfactant
The type of alveolar cell that promotes rapid gas diffusion across the alveolar wall is the
_____. Alveolar type l cell
Which are among the four continuous and simultaneous processes of respiration?
Pulmonary ventilation, systemic gas exchange, alveolar gas exchange, gas transport Type of lung cancer with the tissue of origin:
Squamous cell carcinoma: Cells of respiratory membrane
Small cell carcinoma: neuroendocrine cells
Adenocarcinoma: mucin producing cells A lubricating fluid found in the pleural cavity is ______ fluid. Serous Failure of the left ventricle may cause accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity. This
condition is known as pleural _____. Effusion
The lungs remain inflated despite their tendency to collapse. What is the reason for this?
The negative intrapleural pressure relative to intrapulmonary pressure.
Which is always higher, intrapulmonary pressure or intrapleural pressure?
A condition that occurs when free air gets into the pleural cavity is called a _____.
The presence of free air in the pleural space sometimes causes the affected lung to
deflate, a condition called ______. Atelectasis
Which are functions of the larynx? Serves as a passageway for air, produces sound for
speech, blocks food and drink form entering airway. The largest cartilage of the larynx is the _____ cartilage, which forms the anterior and
lateral walls of the larynx. Thyroid The v-shaped anterior project of the thyroid cartilage is commonly called the _____ in
males. Adams apple The cricoid cartilage is ____ to the thyroid cartilage. Inferior The large, spoon or leaf-shaped piece of elastic cartilage that helps prevent food and
liquid form entering the larynx is the ____. Epiglottis The vocal folds are the ____ set of ligaments, in the larynx, that produce sound. Inferior The glottis refers to the ____ and the ____. Rima glottidis, vocal folds The vestibular folds are also called the _____ vocal cords. False Which are characteristics of the extrinsic muscles of the larynx? Originate in hyoid bone
or sternum, help with swallowing, stabilize larynx
What factors determine the characteristics of sound as they pass though the vocal folds?
Length of cords, tension of cords
Which anatomical structures aid sound production? Nasal cavity, tongue, paranasal
sinuses, teeth, lips
An inflammation of the larynx is _____. Laryngitis Both the growth of the thyroid cartilage and the longer and thicker vocal folds in mature
____ help to explain why males typically have deeper voices than ____. Males, females
Then frequency of sound waves is called _____ and is determined by the amount of
tension on the vocal folds. Pitch _____ depends on the force of the air passing across the vocal cords. Loudness The trachea descends through the neck into the ___ from the ___ to the main bronchi.
Mediastinum; larynx The ____ is also known as the “windpipe” trachea There are 15-20 C-shaped ____ cartilages that support. The anterior and lateral walls of
the trachea. Tracheal
Incomplete rings of ____ cartilage support the wall of the primary bronchi to ensure that
they remain open. Hyaline
T or F: The tracheotomy is one of the oldest surgical procedures in medicine. True
The ____ primary bronchus enters the lung more vertically and is wider and shorter than
the other one. Right
At the level of the sternal angle, the trachea bifurcates into the right and left ____ ____.
The left lung has _2_ secondary bronchi since it has _2_ lobes; the right lung has _3_
lobes and _3_ secondary bronchi.
T or F: lobar bronchi further divide into primary bronchi. False
The ___ bronchioles are the final segment of the conduction pathway. Terminal
This type of bronchitis results from long term exposure to irritants. Chronic
Which drugs are useful in treating asthma? Inhaled steroids, allergy shots, oral steroids
What prevents small bronchioles form collapsing? Their small diameter
The bronchioles are no longer lined with pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
as the bronchi are but are lined with ___ epithelium. Simple columnar
Which characteristics are shared among all the bronchi? A complete ring of smooth
muscle is found between the mucosa and the cartilage, the epithelium changes from
pseudostratified ciliated columnar to ciliated columnar as the bronchi get smaller, the
amount of cartilage decreases as the bronchi decrease in diameter. Ch23 Review:
Respiration normally requires the
a. respiratory system.
b. muscular system.
c. nervous system.
d. All of these are correct. Arrange the following from largest to smallest for the divisions of the lung
a. lobes, bronchopulmonary segments, lobules, alveoli
b. lobes, alveoli, lobules, bronchopulmonary segments
c. alveoli, lobules, bronchopulmonary segments, lobes
d. lobules, bronchopulmonary segments, lobes, alveoli
The lungs do not normally collapse because
a. they are attached to the thoracic wall with parietal ligaments.
b. they are attached to the thoracic wall with the visceral ligaments.
c. the pressure in the intrapleural cavity is lower than the pressure in the intrapulmonary
space ( lungs).
d. the pressure in the intrapleural cavity is greater than the pressure in the
intrapulmonary space (lungs).
Which of the following correctly represents the sequence of events associated with the
thoracic cavity to produce inspiration?
a. muscle contraction, increase in volume, decrease in pressure
b. decrease in pressure, increase in volume, muscle contraction
c. muscle contraction, decrease in pressure, increase in volume
d. increase in volume, muscle contraction, decrease in pressure
The diaphragm and the external intercostals relax. Volume decreases and pressure increases in
the thoracic cavity. This (by itself) describes
a. quiet inspiration.
b. quiet expiration.
c. forced inspiration.
d. forced expiration.
Which areas of the brain contains the respiratory center?
a. medulla oblongata and hypothalamus
b. hypothalamus and pons
c. medulla oblongata and pons
d. medulla oblongata and cerebrum
The amount of which substance in the blood normally sets the respiratory pace?
b. carbon dioxide
c. hydrogen gas (H2)
The movement of oxygen from the blood into the systemic cells is referred to as
a. pulmonary ventilation.
b. alveolar gas exchange.
c. systemic gas exchange.
d. gas transport. Most carbon dioxide is transported in the blood
a. dissolved in the plasma as carbon dioxide.
b. in association with hemoglobin.
c. as bicarbonate ion.
d. in combination with oxygen.
All of the following are accurate statements about hemoglobin except
a. hemoglobin carries oxygen on the Fe ion.
b. hemoglobin carries carbon dioxide on the globin.
c. hemoglobin carries only a small portion of the total carbon dioxide in the blood (less
d. hemoglobin releases oxygen at the level of the cell, making hemoglobin more
Which organ is located in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen?
The____cells of the stomach secrete hydrochloric acid (HCI)
D.GWhich of the following is an unregulated process in the digestive tract?
A. Secretion of cholecystokinin (CCK) by the deodenal mucosa
B. Absorption of amino acids across epithelium of the small intestine
C. Release of bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) by pancreatic duct cells
D. Peristalsis in the stomach
Which organ (or part of an organ) is retroperitoneal?
B. Transverse colon
C. Descending colon
Pancreatic Juice contains
A. HCO3- and digestive enzymes
C. Bile and digestive enzymes
D. gastrin hormone Bile is conducted through the
B. accessory pancreatic duct
C. cystic duct
D. teniae coli
Digestion of proteins begins in the
A. oral cavity
C. small intestine
D. large intestine
Micells help promote
A. denaturation of proteins
B. Digestion and absorption of lipids
C. storage of digested carbohydrates
D. increased degradation of carbohydrates
Hydrolytic enzymes that chemically digest most of our ingested food are secreted by the
B. Small intestine
D. salivary glands
Most of the absorption of our digested food occurs within the
A. large intestine
C. small intestine
D. esophagus Ch26 Answer the following True/False questions regarding the structure and
location of the esophagus.
1. The esophagus extends from the nasopharynx to the stomach. False
2. The esophagus is about 25 meters long. False
3. The esophagus lies anterior to the trachea. False
4. The muscularis of the esophagus is different from other parts of the
digestive tract because the superior part of the esophagus consists of skeletal
5. The esophagus contains both an upper and a lower esophageal sphincter
that regulates the movement of materials into and out of the
6. The esophagus contains numerous mucous glands that produce a thick,
lubricating mucus that coats the inner surface of the esophagus.
True Match the structure of the small intestine with its function.
Contain enteroendocrine cells
Slow passage of material
Secrete digestive hormones
Secrete alkaline mucus Which organs and accessory structures are considered part of the upper GI tract?:
Pharynx, Duodenum, stomach, esophagus
Check all the line the mucosa of the large intestine: Simple columnar epithelium, goblet
cells, intestinal glands Match the secretory cell of the stomach with its secretion:
-Acidic mucin = Mucous neck cell
-Pepsinogen = chief cell
-Gastrin = Enteroendocrine cell
-Hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor = parietal cell
-Mucin = surface mucous cell In what ways is the large intestine histologically different from the small intestine?: Has
smooth mucosa, Lacks intestinal villi
Select all that are major functions of the muscularis layer of the GI tract.: Peristalsis,
What are the names of anatomic structures in the oral cavity?: Uvula, hard palate,
Which of the following structures are anatomically part of each tooth?: Root, pulp,
Match the type of movement that occurs in the large intestine with its description:
-Churning and distal movement of material = haustral churning
-Weak repplelike muscle contractions = peristalsis
-Powerful contractions; propels material towards rectum = mass movements Which are tunics (layers) that make up the gastrointestinal wall?: Adventia or serosa,
muscularis, mucosa, submucosa
Which of the following are considered small intestine brush border enzymes
participating in carbohydrate digestion?: Dextrinase, lactase, sucrase
Check all that are character of the esophagus:
-The mucosa is composed of thick, nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium
-The two layers of muscle in the superior one-third of the muscularis are skeletal. What are the primary hormones that participate in the regulation of the processes of
digestion?: Gastrin, Cholecystokinin (CCK), Secretin Match the phase of swallowing with the correct events:
1. Initiated by stimulation of tactile receptors in the
oropharynx Pharyngeal phase
2. Peristalsis moves food bolus onward Esophageal phase
3. The lower esophageal sphincter relaxes Esophageal phase
4. Begins with elevation of the soft palate Pharyngeal phase
5. Food bolus forced into the oropharynx Voluntary phase
6. The upper esophageal sphincter relaxes Pharyngeal phase
7. Food bolus pushed by tongue against the hard palate Voluntary
phase Bacteria in the large intestine produce vitamins, such as B and K.
Match the segment of the colon with its description:
-Originates at the right colic flexure; is intraperitoneal = Transverse
-Terminates at the rectum; is intraperitoneal = sigmoid colon
-Originates at the left colic flexure; is retroperitoneal = Descending colon
-Originates at the ileocecal valve; is retroperitoneal = ascending colon In which gastrointestinal tunic are general receptors located:
submucosa, musclaris, mucosa Check all that are function of the esophagus: Movement of a bolus of
food the pharynx to the stomach & Prevents materials from returning
from the stomach What are the names of the individual mesenteries associated with
specific GI organs?: Mesocolon, greater omentum, falciform ligament Which of the following general receptors are found within the GI tract?:
Chemoreceptors, mechanoreceptors Which organs are componets of the lower gastrointestinal tract?: Large
intestine, liver, small intestine Which organs or parts of organs are considered to be retroperitoneal?:
Duodenum, pancreases, ascending and descending colon What are the serous membranes of the GI tract called?: visceral
peritoneum, parietal peritoneum, visceral pleura Match each macromolecule below with the monomer to which it is
broken down by chemical digestion:
-Carbohydrates = monosaccharides
-fats = monoglycerides and fatty acids
-nucleic acids = nucleotides
-proteins = amino acids The digestive system includes the organs that _____ the food, transport the ingested
material, digest the material into smaller usable components, ____ the necessary
digested nutrients into the bloodstream, and expel the waste products form the body.
The biliary apparatus is a network of thin ducts that carry bile form the liver and
gallbladder to the ____. Duodenum
Bile and pancreatic juice mix in the hepatopancreatic ____ prior to emptying into the
duodenum via the major duodenal _____. Ampulla, papilla
The liver covered by a ____ tissue capsule and a layer of ___ peritoneum, except for a
small region on its diaphragmatic surface called the bare area. Connective, visceral In a cross section, a hepatic lobule looks like a side view of a bicycle wheel. A the
circumference of the wheel where the tire would be, are several ____ triads that are
usually equidistant apart. Portal
The sinusoids are lined with stellate cells called ____ cells. Reticuloendothelial
The ___ concentrates bile produced by the ____ and stores this concentrate until it is
needed for digestion. gallbladder, liver
Bile travels form the ____ hepatic duct through the cystic duct to be stored in the
gallbladder; stored bile travels back through the ____ duct for conduction to the small
intestine stored bile travels back through the ____ duct for conduction to the small
intestine. Common, Cystic
The pancreases is referred to as a mixed gland because it exhibits both ___ and exocrine
The large intestine originates at the ____ junction and terminates at the anus. Ileocecal
The initial or first region of the large intestine is a blind sac called t...
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