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# Lab 2 - Tufts University School of Engineering Department...

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Tufts University School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering ES3 - Introduction to Electrical Circuits Fall 2007 Lab Section: Tuesday 2:30 – 4:30 Experiment 2 Measurement of Time-Varying Signals Name: xxxxx [email protected] Submitted to: xxxxx Experiment Performed: xxxxx Experiment Due: xxxxxx

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Purpose The purpose of this lab was to learn how to use a very important electronic tool— the oscilloscope—to measure a time-varying voltage and current that was produced by the function generator. Using these tools, we also were able to verify the relationship between current, capacitance, and voltage. Audio speakers also continued to be investigated, both for sound and for their resistive and inductive properties. Lastly, unknown values for capacitance and impedance were found using the above stated tools and relationships. Introduction The main components of this lab revolved around using two electrical instruments: the oscilloscope and the function generator. An oscilloscope is one of the most important tools used in electronics and the study of electricity. It allows a time- varying voltage signal to be seen rather than just a snapshot of a voltage. The voltage is shown on the y -axis, and the time on the x -axis. This makes it possible to see more than just a snapshot voltage. Whereas this voltage could be completely random and unexpected, the oscilloscope would put it in context by demonstrating the oscillating nature of the voltage. The second important piece of equipment used in this lab was the function generator. This device generates various patterns of voltage that are defined by different frequencies and amplitudes. The main feature that was used in the lab was the sine wave voltage. The generator produces a time-varying voltage that changes from high to low in a sinusoidal fashion. These alternating voltages that are produced are called AC voltages (V AC ) because they are not constant with respect to time. Using these alternating voltages, a quantity called capacitance can be measured. If the voltage is known and the current is known, it is possible to find capacitance (C) according to the following relationship: dt dv C i = where dt dv is the change in voltage with respect to time. The capacitance that is found is the amount of charge that is stored per electric potential. This is explained by the equation: V Q C = where Q is the charge and V the voltage. A capacitor is the device connected to the circuit that stores this charge. It is made up of two parallel metal plates that conduct electricity. The energy is stored in the electric field between these plates. The last thing that was touched on in the lab was inductance. The ratio of the magnetic flux to the current producing it is called the coil’s inductance. This inductance is present in the voice coil that is present in the speaker. This quantity can be measured using an LCR meter.
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