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# Lab 3 - Tufts University School of Engineering Department...

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Tufts University School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering ES3 - Introduction to Electrical Circuits Fall 2007 Lab Section: Tuesday 2:30 – 4:30 (I did a make up lab on Friday, October 26 instead of my normal Tuesday section) Experiment 3 Thevenin Equivalent Circuits and Maximum Power Transfer Name: xxxxx [email protected] tufts.edu Submitted to: xxx Experiment Performed: xxx Experiment Due: 11xxxx Worked with: xxxxxx

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Purpose The purpose of this lab was to determine the Thevenin equivalent of various electrical components. In addition, the Maximum Power Transfer theorem was used. By using these two concepts along with various lab devices and a bread board, the goal was to become more familiar with many very common uses and applications of electrical engineering. Introduction The main component of this lab that was used to connect the circuits was a device called a breadboard. It is used to quickly test various circuits because it contains all of the wiring internally, and the element can be simply placed in the holes that correspond to the desired circuit. The design of the breadboard allows for this simplicity. In the front, there are tie points that are mainly used for distributing power supply voltages throughout the entire board. The rest of the board can be used to connect circuit elements in various ways. Circuit elements that are all connected in one row are in series. When the left lead of each element is connected to one column and the right lead of each to another column, the elements are said to be in parallel. The breadboard was the base from which the rest of the lab was built. Using this tool, Thevenin equivalent circuits (TEC) of various electrical elements were studied. A Thevenin equivalent consists of an independent voltage source in series with a resistance. This circuit is open at the end meaning that no current runs through it. Because of this, the Thevenin voltage will be equal to the open circuit voltage. In order to find the Thevenin resistance, the open circuit can be shorted, allowing a current to run through it. Using Ohm’s Law, the resistance is then calculated by dividing the Thevenin voltage by the current through the short circuit. In a similar circuit where a resistor is placed across the open terminals of the equivalent circuit, it is still possible to solve for the Thevenin resistance. In order to do this, the voltage across the additional resistor needs to be measured. Then, using Kirchhoff’s voltage law, the voltage across the Thevenin resistor can be found. Dividing this by the current (found using Ohm’s Law) will yield the Thevenin resistance. The next important part of the lab was the use of the Maximum Power Transfer theorem. This theorem states that the load resistance (resistance placed across the open terminals in the Thevenin equivalent) that absorbs the maximum power from a two- terminal circuit is equal to the Thevenin resistance. Thus, various derivations and
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