Lab Report-Enzymes.docx - The Effects of Temperature and pH on Enzyme Functionality Evalyn Peacey Kirkley Biology 111 1 Abstract Enzymes are important

Lab Report-Enzymes.docx - The Effects of Temperature and pH...

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The Effects of Temperature and pH on Enzyme Functionality Evalyn Peacey Kirkley, Biology 111 March 11, 2019
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1 Abstract: Enzymes are important for many everyday functions in the human body. They catalyze reactions in the body to help it survive. If they do not have the ideal conditions, however, they can become denatured and no longer work effectively. In this lab, the enzyme peroxidase is tested under different pH and temperature conditions. pH affects the shape of the active site of an enzyme while temperature affects the rate at which a reaction occurs. Two experiments were conducted in this lab to test what the ideal environments are for peroxidase. Data was gathered for pH by filling test tubes with a substrate solution. Those were combined with a buffer and the enzyme, peroxidase, before being placed in a spectrophotometer to test their reaction speeds. Data was gathered for temperature by filling test tubes with a similar substrate solution and combining those with the substrate, peroxidase. These solutions were incubated in different temperature water baths before being inserted into the spectrophotometer. The hypothesis stating that enzymes will react quicker at higher temperatures and higher pH was incorrect. Data from this lab concludes that this enzyme functions best with a pH of 6 and a temperature of 50 . Introduction: Enzymes are proteins that catalyze certain biochemical reactions within living organisms. Catalysts speed up a chemical reaction by lowering the activation energy needed for the reaction to begin. They are a very important aspect of life. For example, they aid in processes such as the digestion process and DNA replication. There are many steps involved in how enzymes function. In order to catalyze a reaction, an enzyme must first bind to the chemical reactant known as a substrate. The substrate binds to the enzyme’s active site, where the chemical reaction takes place. After the substrate attaches to the active site, the enzyme slightly changes its shape to create an induced fit, which lets the enzyme work more efficiently. Once the substrate is locked
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2 in, the reaction can take place. In this process, “the enzyme stresses the substrate molecules and several critical bonds” which lowers the required amount of external energy to break them apart (Lab 4 Enzymes, 2019). After this, the altered substrates break away from the active site as products of the reaction. Then the enzyme shifts back to its original form and is ready to accept the next substrate (Britannica, 2019). Dehydrogenases are specialized enzymes that help carry out redox reactions during cellular respiration. These reactions are a result of the combined reactions of oxidation and reduction, also known as, redox reactions. Oxidation is when one compound gives away an electron, often accompanied by a hydrogen ion and a hydrogen atom. Reduction is when another compound gains that electron, hydrogen ion, and hydrogen atom. A compound that gives away an electron has been oxidized. For example: when iron and oxygen react with each other, a
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