NEO_GERT_Final_090323 (2).ppt - General Employee Radiation...

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Unformatted text preview: General Employee Radiation Training (GERT) FN000241/CR New Employee Orientation Objectives Upon completion of this class, the participant will be able to DISCUSS the Fermilab Radiological Control Program in regards to radiological terminology, hazards, risks, identification systems and employee responsibilities. •DEFINE natural background and man-made sources of radiation, as well as sources of radiation at Fermilab. •DEFINE the basic terminology used in radiological control. •DIFFERENTIATE between non-ionizing and ionizing radiation. New Employee Orientation Objectives Understand: the potential biological effects from ionizing radiation. the whole body radiation exposure limit for nonradiological workers. the ALARA concept and principles. the methods used to control radioactive material. general employee responsibilities for the Radiological Control program. what to do in case of a radiation emergency. New Employee Orientation Sources of Radiation Natural background Man-made Fermilab background sources New Employee Orientation Natural Background U.S. Average = 360 mrem/year Cosmic Radiation Internal Sources Eat, drink, breathe Terrestrial Rocks & Soil Radon New Employee Orientation Man-made Background Medical Diagnostic Consumer X-rays & nuclear medicine products Smoke detectors, lantern mantels, smoking products Fallout from weapons testing New Employee Orientation Fermilab Sources Largest dose from accidental exposure to operating beam Low-level sources Magnets Activated materials New Employee Orientation Definitions rad - the amount of energy deposited in matter by radiation rem - the amount of biological damage done to our bodies by ionizing radiation most doses are so small, they are usually reported in thousandths of a rem, or millirem (mrem) New Employee Orientation Definitions GENERAL EMPLOYEE - an individual who may encounter radiological barriers, postings, and/or radioactive materials in the course of his/her assignment. New Employee Orientation Definitions RADIOLOGICAL WORKER - an individual whose job assignment requires work on, with, or in the proximity of radiation producing machines or radioactive material and has the potential of being exposed to greater than 100 mrem each year as part of their job at Fermilab. New Employee Orientation Definitions CONTROLLED AREA - an area where access is controlled due to the chance of higher than background radiation levels being present. RADIATION - energy emitted in the form of rays or particles from unstable atoms or accelerator beams. New Employee Orientation Definitions RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL - any material, equipment, or system component that contains or has on its surface unstable atoms. RADIOACTIVITY - the natural and spontaneous process by which unstable atoms emit or radiate excess energy. RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION - radioactive material that is removable, loose, transferable, or in an unwanted place. New Employee Orientation Ionizing Radiation Enough energy to remove electrons from an electrically neutral atom Type of radiation of most concern and what is usually referred to when one speaks of radiation New Employee Orientation Ionizing Radiation Four basic types of ionizing radiation Alpha particles Beta particles Gamma & X-rays Neutrons New Employee Orientation Non-Ionizing Radiation does not have enough energy to remove an electron from an electrically neutral atom capable of causing biological damage, but not a major radiological concern includes microwaves, radio waves, ultraviolet and visible light New Employee Orientation Biological Effects Effects of radiation on biological systems depend on the total dose and the rate at which the dose is delivered Acute dose Chronic dose New Employee Orientation Acute Dose Large dose that is received over a short period of time radiation therapy for cancer treatment accident New Employee Orientation Chronic Dose Small amount of radiation received over long periods of time natural background routine medical exposures work-related or occupational exposures New Employee Orientation Chronic Dose Biological effects from a chronic exposure may be observed in the individual Genetic effects may appear in an individual's children as a result of a dose to that person's reproductive cells, prior to conception New Employee Orientation Biological Effects Developing embryo/fetus is the most radiosensitive stage of human development because the cells are rapidly dividing Exposure of the embryo/fetus to radiation may increase the child's chances of impaired physical growth, slower mental development or childhood cancer New Employee Orientation Biological Effects The risk to a fetus is virtually eliminated by special protective measures for pregnant radiation workers Occupational exposures may slightly increase the risk for the development of cancer and/or cataracts New Employee Orientation Dose Limit Radiation dose limit for general employees is 100 mrem/year New Employee Orientation ALARA As Low As Reasonably Achievable The concept at the heart of any radiological control program Minimize exposures to radiation and radioactive materials, on site and off site New Employee Orientation ALARA Time - Reduce the amount of time spent near a source of radiation. Distance - Stay as far away from the source as possible. Shielding - Place some type of shielding between you and the source. New Employee Orientation Other Lab Policies Particle beams will not be accelerated without good reason No person will be exposed to radiation unnecessarily Beam losses will be limited so that the residual dose rate inside the beamline enclosures will safely permit maintenance New Employee Orientation Radiological Controls All areas or materials controlled for radiological purposes are identified by one or more of the following: Signs that have the standard radiation symbol colored magenta or black on a yellow background posted at the entrance Yellow, and magenta or black rope, tape, chains or other barriers are used to designate the boundaries of posted areas New Employee Orientation Radiological Controls Labels are used to identify radioactive material Yellow plastic wrapping is used to package radioactive material Only designated areas are used to store radioactive material Protective clothing and equipment are used to protect personnel from contamination New Employee Orientation Postings Controlled Area An area to which access is controlled to protect personnel from exposure to radiation and/or radioactive material above natural background levels Radioactive Materials Area An area where radioactive materials are used, stored, or handled New Employee Orientation Postings Radiation Area Area with dose rates between 5 mrem/hr and 100 mrem/hr. High Radiation Area An area with dose rates >100 mrem/hr, but < 500 rad/hr Other Can designate areas with higher dose rates or contamination New Employee Orientation Label Classification System Classes numbered 1 through 5 The greater the number on the label, the greater the level of radiation being emitted New Employee Orientation GERT Authorized Entry May enter a Controlled Area without an escort May enter an area solely posted as a Radioactive Material Area provided that you do not handle any radioactive materials New Employee Orientation Employee Responsibilities Obey all signs/postings Comply with all radiological and safety rules Do not enter radiological areas for which you have not had the appropriate training, unless escorted New Employee Orientation Employee Responsibilities If being escorted: obey the instructions of your escort wear required dosimetry Be alert for and report unusual radiological situations New Employee Orientation Employee Responsibilities Know where and/or how to contact Radiological Control personnel in your work area Comply with emergency procedures for your work area Keep exposures to radiation and radioactive materials ALARA New Employee Orientation Emergency Situations A radiation emergency is any situation involving radiation which places or may place in jeopardy human life, health, or safety or valuable property fires in radiation areas a leaking container in a radiation area a transportation accident involving radioactive material New Employee Orientation Emergency Situations Responsibility for reporting the emergency initially rests with the person who discovers it If you discover what you think may be an emergency of any kind: Call X3131 Remain on the scene Keep others from entering the hazardous area New Employee Orientation Comparison of Risks ACTIVITY DAYS LOST Being an unmarried male 3500 Cigarette smoking (1 pack/day) 2250 Being an unmarried female 1600 Working as a coal miner 1100 Being 25% overweight 777 Consuming alcohol (US average) 365 Being a construction worker 227 Driving a motor vehicle 207 All industry 60 Exposure to 100 mrem/year for 70 years Drinking coffee 6 10 New Employee Orientation Comparison of Risks RELATIVE RISK OF 1 IN A MILLION CHANCES OF DYING ACTIVITY Smoking 1.4 cigarettes Eating 40 tbsp. of peanut butter Eating 100 charcoal broiled steaks Spending 2 days in New York City Driving 40 miles in a car Flying 2500 miles in a jet Canoeing for 6 minutes Receiving 10 mrem of radiation CAUSE OF DEATH Lung cancer Cancer Cancer Air pollution Accident Accident Drowning Cancer New Employee Orientation Summary As an employee, it is important to be informed of the radiological hazards at the site Workers need to be able to identify the hazards and take appropriate protective measures Through an enhanced awareness and a sense of personal responsibility and ownership, each employee can contribute to safe ALARA practices New Employee Orientation Summary Should you have any questions regarding the material in this presentation, please ask your supervisor or contact your Area Radiation Safety Officer (RSO) or the ES&H Radiation Physics Team Accelerator Division RSO X4570 Business Services Section RSO X8386 Computing Division RSO X8493 Facilities Eng. Services Sect. RSO X8448 Particle Physics Division RSO X4407 Technical Division RSO X5424 ES&H Radiation Physics Team X3465 New Employee Orientation ...
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  • Fall '19
  • Ionizing radiation, Radiation Physics Team,  Terrestrial, Area Radiation Safety, Fermilab Radiological Control

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