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HAP 101Anatomy & Physiology ITest #2 (Week 5-7)—20%Chapter 6: The Skeletal System—Bone TissueIntroduction-The skeletal system has 6 important functions:oProvides supportoProtects the internal organsBrain, heart, etc.oAssists body movementsIn conjunction with musclesoStores and releases salts of calcium and phosphorusoParticipates in blood cell productionHemopoiesisoStores triglycerides in adipose cells of yellow marrowStructure of Bone-A long bone consists of several parts:oDiaphysisBone shafto2 epiphysesBoth ends of the bone at the jointso2 metaphysesRegion between diaphysis andepiphysisoArticular cartilage covering bothepiphysesoPeriosteumConnective tissue surrounding thediaphysisoMedullary cavityHollow space within diaphysisoEndosteumThin membrane lining themedullary cavityHistology of Bone-Bone contains 4 types of cellsoOsteoprogenitor cellsBone stem cells able to differentiate into the other types of cellsoOsteroblastsBone-building cells that secrete matrixoOsteocytesMature bone cellsoOsteoclastsRemodel bones and cause them to release calcium
HAP 101Anatomy & Physiology I-Compact boneis good at providing protection and support-Spongy boneis lightweight and provides tissue supportBlood and Nerve Supply of Bone-Periosteal arteries(accompanied by nerves)oEnter the diaphysis through Volkmann’scanalsThey are accompanied byperiostealveins-Nutrient arteryenters the center of the diaphysisthrough anutrient foramenoNutrient veinsexit via the same canal-Metaphyses and epiphyses also have their ownarteries and veinsBone Formation-Ossification (osteogenesis)is the process of boneformation-Bones form in 4 situationsoDuring embryological and fetal developmentoWhen bones grow before adulthoodoWhen bones remodeloWhen fractures heal-Ossification takes place in 2 formsoIntramembranousandendochondral-Intramembranous ossification occurs in flat bones when a connective tissuemembrane is replaced by bone
HAP 101Anatomy & Physiology I-Endochondral ossificationreplaces cartilage with bone in thedeveloping embryo and fetus-Endochondral ossification also occurs in epiphysealplates of long bones as they grow in length-Bones thicken thanks to the cooperative action of osteoblasts and osteoclasts
HAP 101Anatomy & Physiology IBone Growth and Remodeling (Wiley)meset2.htm1.1 Introduction-After birth, bones grow in thickness and length-Bones grow in diameter via appositional growth at the periosteum(childhood)-Epiphyseal plates enable lengthwise growth of long bones, such as thehumerus, by interstitial growth-Bone remodeling accommodates changing needsoGrow through continual remodeling; a process of reshaping andresizing to accommodate changing forces-Although bone growth is completed by mid-20s, remodeling continuesthroughout life2.1 Remodeling of Growing Bones-