HAP101- Test 2.pdf - HAP$101$ Anatomy$&$Physiology$I$...

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HAP 101Anatomy & Physiology IAnatomy & Physiology ITest #2 (Week 5,7)—20%Chapter 6: The Skeletal System—Bone TissueIntroduction8The skeletal system has 6 important functions:oProvides supportoProtects the internal organs!Brain, heart, etc.oAssists body movements!In conjunction with musclesoStores and releases salts of calcium and phosphorusoParticipates in blood cell production!HemopoiesisoStores triglycerides in adipose cells of yellow marrowStructure of Bone8A long bone consists of several parts:oDiaphysis!Bone shafto2 epiphyses!Both ends of the bone at the jointso2 metaphyses!Region between diaphysis andepiphysisoArticular cartilage covering bothepiphysesoPeriosteum!Connective tissue surrounding thediaphysisoMedullary cavity!Hollow space within diaphysisoEndosteum!Thin membrane lining themedullary cavityHistology of Bone8Bone contains 4 types of cellsoOsteoprogenitor cells!Bone stem cells able to differentiate into the other types ofcellsoOsteroblasts!Bone8building cells that secrete matrixoOsteocytes!Mature bone cellsoOsteoclasts!Remodel bones and cause them to release calcium
HAP 101Anatomy & Physiology IAnatomy & Physiology I8Compact boneis good at providing protection and support8Spongy boneis lightweight and provides tissue supportBlood and Nerve Supply of Bone8Periosteal arteries(accompanied by nerves)oEnter the diaphysis through Volkmann’scanals!They are accompanied byperiostealveins8Nutrient arteryenters the center of the diaphysisthrough anutrient foramenoNutrient veinsexit via the same canal8Metaphyses and epiphyses also have their ownarteries and veinsBone Formation8Ossification (osteogenesis)is the process of boneformation8Bones form in 4 situationsoDuring embryological and fetal developmentoWhen bones grow before adulthoodoWhen bones remodeloWhen fractures heal8Ossification takes place in 2 formsoIntramembranousandendochondral8Intramembranous ossification occurs in flat bones when a connective tissuemembrane is replaced by bone
HAP 101Anatomy & Physiology IAnatomy & Physiology I8Endochondral ossificationreplaces cartilage with bone in thedeveloping embryo and fetus8Endochondral ossification also occurs in epiphysealplates of long bones as they grow in length8Bones thicken thanks to the cooperative action of osteoblasts and osteoclasts
HAP 101Anatomy & Physiology IAnatomy & Physiology IBone Growth and Remodeling (Wiley)meset2.htm1.1 Introduction8After birth, bones grow in thickness and length8Bones grow in diameter via appositional growth at the periosteum(childhood)8Epiphyseal plates enable lengthwise growth of long bones, such as thehumerus, by interstitial growth8Bone remodeling accommodates changing needsoGrow through continual remodeling; a process of reshaping andresizing to accommodate changing forces8Although bone growth is completed by mid820s, remodeling continuesthroughout life2.1 Remodeling of Growing Bones8

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Hyaline, parts of bone tissue

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