Chapter 16 Notes

Chapter 16 Notes - Chapter 16: Kinetics Lecture Outline...

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Slide No. 1 Chapter 16: Kinetics ± Math Review ± Expressing the Rates of Reaction ± The Rate Law ± Integrated Rate Law ² 1st order reactions ² 2nd order reactions ² Zero order reactions? ± Factors that Influence Reaction Rates ± Reaction Mechanisms ± Catalysis ± Reading: Chapter 16 (all) ± Homework Problems: 16, ,20(a,b), 30, 32, 80(a,b), 34, 98, 41, 43, 44, 84, 49, 62, 72, 74, 100(a,c,e,f,g,i,l,o) Lecture Outline Slide No. 2 16.0 Math Review: Linear Graphs ± Equation takes the form y = mx + b ² x = independent variable (what you change experimentally) ² y = dependent variable (what you observe) ² m = slope ² b = y intercept ± Two points, (x 1 , y 1 ) and (x 2 , y 2 ) Æ the slope ² Slope = “rise over run” 1 2 1 2 x x y y m = x 1 x 2 y 1 y 2 two arbitrary points
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Slide No. 3 16.0 Math Review: Tangents and Slopes ± For any curve, the slope at any given point can be determined from the slope of a tangent line . ± As you move along the curve, the tangent adjusts and the slope changes. 1 2 1 2 x x y y m = Curve Tangent Line x 1 x 2 x y 2 y y 1 Slide No. 4 16.0 Math Review: Logarithms ± Solving for a variable inside a logarithm or an exponent. ² ln(e x ) = x. For example, if y = e x , then ln y = ln(e x ) = x ² e ln x = x. For example, if y = ln x, then e y = e ln x = x ± Other useful rules for natural logarithms ² ln (A/B) = ln A – ln B ² ln (A•B) = ln A + ln B ² e x •e y = e x+y and e x /e y = e x–y ± Be sure you know how to use the natural logarithm functions on your calculator. ± As practice, try solving each of the following for x ² ln x = 6 (correct answer: x = 403) ² e x = 13 (correct answer: x = 2.57) ² ln 0.14 – ln x = –0.034 . Solve for x (correct answer x = 0.145)
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Slide No. 5 The Rates of Reactions ± Kinetics ² The study of the ________ of reactions ² Useful for understanding reaction _______________ ² Engineering aspects ± Reaction Rate ² Change in concentration with ________ ² If A is a reactant, [A] _____________ with time ² If A is a product, [A] ______________ with time ² Generally these changes are not linear • The graph of [A] vs t is usually _____ a straight line. ² The rate is always positive t [A] rate = 16.2 The Reaction Rate Slide No. 6 Example of Reaction Rates N 2 O 5 (g) 2 NO 2 (g) + ½ O 2 (g) Concentration vs. Time 0.00 0.04 0.08 0.12 0.16 0.20 0.24 0.28 0.32 0123456789 1 0 Time (min) Concentration (M) [N2O5] (M) [NO2] (M) [O2] (M) 16.2 The Reaction Rate
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Slide No. 7 Example of Individual Reaction Rates N 2 O 5 (g) 2 NO 2 (g) + ½ O 2 (g) ± Time interval: 0 Æ 2 minutes ² These are average rates over a certain time interval. = = t ] O [N rate 5 2 = = t ] [NO rate 2 = = t ] [O rate 2 16.2 The Reaction Rate Slide No. 8 Relationships Among Individual Rates ± Consider the following balanced reaction: N 2 + 3 H 2 Æ 2 NH 3 ± Rates are proportional to stoichiometric coefficients ² The rate of consumption of H 2 is ___ times the rate of consumption of N 2 . ² The rate of formation of NH 3 is ___ times the rate of consumption of H 2 .
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This note was uploaded on 03/31/2008 for the course CHEM 1035 taught by Professor Jgdillard during the Fall '07 term at Virginia Tech.

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Chapter 16 Notes - Chapter 16: Kinetics Lecture Outline...

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