chapter 12 notes

chapter 12 notes - Chapter 12: Liquids and Solids Lecture...

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Slide No. 1 Chapter 12: Liquids and Solids ± What's The Point ? ² To understand the intermolecular interactions that determine the physical properties of different substances. ± Review Phases of Matter ± Intermolecular vs. Intramolecular Forces ± Intermolecular Forces ² Types of forces ² Using boiling point trends to predict their strength ± Physical Properties of Liquids ² Boiling Point ² Surface Tension, Viscosity, Vapor Pressure ± Reading: 12.1, 12.2 (Liquid-Gas Equilibrium, pp 430-434), 12.3-12.5 ± Homework Problems: 12(13), 15(16), 39(40), (41)42, 47(48), 49(50), 51(52), 61(62), 63(64) Lecture Outline Slide No. 2 Phases of Matter: A Concise Review Very ordered 3D array Doesn’t take shape or fill volume of container Vibrational motion only Relatively dense ~ noncompressible Attraction between particles Particles close together, but not ordered Takes container shape, but doesn’t fill it Particles can move past each other Relatively dense ~ noncompressible Attraction between particles Container is mostly empty space Takes shape and fills volume of container. Particles moving fast in random motion Not dense Compressible Little or no attraction between particles Solid Liquid Gas
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Slide No. 3 Physical Properties of Substances ± Physical properties of substances determined by the strength of forces between atoms/molecules forming the substance. ± All atoms/molecules can be treated like tiny electric _______. ± _________________ is a good measure of intermolecular forces: ² heating provides energy to disrupt intermolecular attractive forces ² ________ forces Æ ___________ required Æ _______ boiling point + + + Boil Slide No. 4 Int ra molecular vs Int er molecular Forces ± Intra = __________ ² Intramolecular Forces • Attractive and repulsive forces __________ a molecule • Covalent bonds are an example ± Inter = _________ or _________ ² Intermolecular (Interparticle) Forces • Attractive and repulsive forces among two or more molecules ± Strength of intermolecular forces dependent on _____________ (degree of charge separation in a molecule) ± Types of Intermolecular Forces H H HH Dispersion (London) Dipole Hydrogen Bonding (Ionic) Increasing Strength Increasing Charge Separation within molecule
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Slide No. 5 Dispersion (London) Forces ± _____________ intermolecular force ² ___________ are constantly redistributing ² At any instant, there are be small ______________ ² London-type dipoles are _________________ ± Exists in all substances – even noble gases ± In nonpolar substances this is the only force ² Insignificant for polar and ionic substances (other forces dominate) ± Examples: CH 4 , O=C=O, Ar, Ne, N N, SF 6 ± Strength of force increases with ______________________ of the element or molecule ² __________________ = ability of electrons to get pulled or pushed around ² Bigger molecule Æ more surface area Æ more _______________ ² Surface of a large molecule can have several _____________________ ± Note: In hydrocarbons, the C–H bond has a weak dipole, but the dipoles cannot get very close to one another. These compounds behave as nonpolar .
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chapter 12 notes - Chapter 12: Liquids and Solids Lecture...

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