chapter 1 notes

chapter 1 notes - Chapter 1 Keys to the Study of Chemistry...

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Slide No. 1 Chapter 1: Keys to the Study of Chemistry 1.0 Introduction 1.1 Some Fundamental Definitions. Properties of matter 1.4, 1.5, 1.6 Measurement ± Units Base (SI) Units Chemistry Units Unit Conversion Metric Prefixes ± Uncertainty in Measurements Significant Figures Precision and Accuracy Assignment: ± Read entire Chapter 1. Work through the Sample Problems! ± Homework Problems: 4, 6, 28 (29), 30 (31a), 34 (35), 36 (37), 38 (39), 42 (43a,b), 52 (53),58 (59a,b), 60, 70, 73, 79 (81),84 (86) Lecture Outline Slide No. 2 1.0 Introduction ² Chemistry Matters! What is chemistry? The study of matter and its properties, the changes that matter undergoes, and the energy associated with those changes ² Matter ± “Stuff" of the universe ± Anything that has mass and occupies volume ² Substance ± Matter with a fixed, defined composition ² 3 States of Matter ± solid : does not take the shape of or fill the volume of the container ± liquid : conforms to the container shape, but does not occupy the entire volume ± gas : takes the shape of and occupies the volume of the container 1.1 Some fundamental definitions
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Slide No. 3 States of Matter Illustrated ± Solid ± Liquid ± Gas melting freezing boiling condensation sublimation deposition 1.1 Some fundamental definitions Slide No. 4 Physical and Chemical Changes ± Physical Change ² A substance alters its physical form but not its composition ² Example: solid liquid gas ± Physical Properties ² They describe a substance without changing the identity of the substance. ² Example: phase changes, color, magnetic properties. ± Chemical Change ² Also called a chemical reaction ² It changes the chemical identity of one or more substance(s) ± Chemical Properties ² They describe how a substance can react with other substances ² They describe how a substance can change into other substances 1.1 Some fundamental definitions Key to distinguish physical from chemical change: Does composition change?
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Slide No. 5 Physical and Chemical Changes Illustrated ± Solid water (ice) melting ² Same chemical substance ² H 2 O(s) Æ H 2 O(l) ² Phase change ² Physical change ± Electrolysis of Water ² Composition changes ² 2 H 2 O(l) Æ 2 H 2 + O 2 ² Chemical change Hydrogen Oxygen 1.1 Some fundamental definitions Slide No. 6 Concept Exercise: Physical or Chemical change? ± Which of these are chemical vs. physical changes: ² dew condensing on a leaf ² ice cream melting ² heating orange mercuric oxide to produce a silvery liquid and a colorless, odorless gas ² the iron in an old car slowly forms reddish brown, crumbly rust. Sample Problem 1.1 on p. 5 1.1 Some fundamental definitions
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Slide No. 7 Extensive and Intensive Properties ± Describe the following: water mercury copper colorless liquid silvery liquid reddish metallic solid b.p. = 100 o C very dense malleable, ductile no flavor or odor conducts electricity electrical conductor ± Intensive properties ² used to characterize ² independent of the amount ² examples: • mp, bp, color • temperature •d e n s i t y ± Extensive properties ²
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This note was uploaded on 03/31/2008 for the course CHEM 1035 taught by Professor Jgdillard during the Fall '07 term at Virginia Tech.

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chapter 1 notes - Chapter 1 Keys to the Study of Chemistry...

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