Chapter 5 notes

Chapter 5 notes - Slide No. 1 Chapter 5: Gases Properties...

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Unformatted text preview: Slide No. 1 Chapter 5: Gases Properties of Gases Pressure The Ideal Gas Law Gas Law Calculations Stoichiometry (reactions) with Gases The Kinetic Theory of Gases Collision Theory Diffusion and Effusion Reading: Sections 5.1-5.6 Homework Problems: 8, 12(14a,d), 24(25), 26(27), 30(31), 28(110), 38(39), 40(41), 42(43), 50a(49), 51(52), 55(56), 69(70), 77(78) Lecture Outline Slide No. 2 5.1 Phases of Matter: A Review Gas : Molecules are far apart and fill the available space. Liquid : Molecules are close together but move relative to each other. Solids : Molecules are tightly packed and move around very little. Slide No. 3 Phases of Matter and Physical Changes Small changes (slight swelling) Small changes (e.g. thermometer) Large dependence Complex Horrifying Simple "Ideal Gas Law" Usually slightly more dense than corresp. liquid Dense (g / mL) Light (g / L) Essentially no change Essentially no change Large dependence Neither shape nor volume of container Take shape of container Take shape of container and fill its volume Volume vs Temperature Theoretical Description Density Volume vs Pressure Description Solid Liquid Gas 5.1 Phases of Matter: A Review Slide No. 4 5.2 Pressure Atmospheric Pressure : pressure that the atmosphere exerts upon us (and that we exert on the atmosphere) Pressure = Force per unit area SI Units: Pascal = N/m 2 = kgm 1 s 2 Other Units: 1 atm = 760 torr = 760 mm Hg = 29.92 in Hg = 14.7 lb/in 2 (psi) = 101,325 Pa = 1.01325 Bar = 33.9 feet of water 1 Bar 10 5 Pa Bar = Atm (~1% error) 1 mm Hg = 1 torr mBar vs mmHg (~30% error) Area Force Pressure = Slide No. 5 Working with Pressure Units Problem A reaction is run at a reduced pressure of 10 mtorr. What is this pressure in (a) mm Hg? (b) Atmospheres? (c) Pa? Pa 1.3 atm 1 Pa 10 1.01 atm 10 1.3 atm 10 1.3 mmHg 760 atm 1 mmHg 0.01 mmHg 0.01 Torr 1 mmHg 1 mTorr 1000 Torr 1 mTorr 10 5 5- 5- = = = 5.2 Pressure Slide No. 6 Measuring Pressure The Barometer inv. Torricelli 1643 Vacuum at the top exerts no force of its own Downward force per mm depends on the density of the liquid Distance between the base level and the column head is simply measured This gives pressure in units of distance Shown here: in Hg On the web: http://www.usatoday.com/weather/wbaromtr.htm http://www.srh.noaa.gov/elp/wxcalc/pressureconvert.shtml 29.9 in Hg 5.2 Pressure Slide No. 7 Observations Giving Rise to the "Gas Law" V = k 3 n V = k 2 (1 / P) V = k 1 T Proportional Inversely related Proportional V vs n (P, T fixed) V vs P (n, T fixed) V vs T (n, P fixed) Graphical Quantitative Qualitative Relationship Avogadro's Law Boyle's Law Charles's Law V T(K) V P V n V = volume; T = temperature (K); P = pressure; n = moles of gas 5.3 The Gas Laws and their experimental foundation Slide No. 8 Proportionality Concepts Example Consider 1 mole of an "ideal" gas in a sealed vessel. What will happen to the volume of the gas if the pressure is doubled...
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Chapter 5 notes - Slide No. 1 Chapter 5: Gases Properties...

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