Chapter 8 notes

Chapter 8 notes - Chapter 8: Electron Configurations...

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Slide No. 1 Chapter 8: Electron Configurations ± What's The Point ? ² By examining how electrons organize themselves in atoms, we can begin to understand trends in chemical reactivity and structure. ± Periodic Table Revisited ± Many-Electron Atoms ± Electron Configurations ± Periodic Trends ± Atomic Structure and Chemical Reactivity ± Reading : Entire Chapter ± Homework Problems : 11(12), 21(22), 23(24), 27(28a,b), 33(34), 39(40), 53(54a,c), 55(56b,d), 59(60a), 76(77), 78(79a,d), 80(81a,b), 82(83), 86(87b,c) Lecture Outline Slide No. 2 8.1 The development of the Periodic Table ± Review: Chapter 2, Slides 18-20. ² Each column is called a group (18 groups) ² Each row is called a period (7 periods) ± Early periodic table (Mendeleev) ² Groups combined elements with similar "maximum valences." ² Valence describes the ratio of combinations (PCl 5 , VCl 5 ). ² Predicted the future discovery of "Missing" elements. ² Elements were ordered by their masses. ± Modern table 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Metals Metalloids Non-metals Review: Chapter 2 Slide 17
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Slide No. 3 From Quantum Theory to Chemistry ± Quantum theory gives us: ² Location and behavior or electrons in atoms ² Orbital energies ² Orbital shapes ± Quantum theory explains: ² whether elements are metals, metalloids, or nonmetals ² the tendency of an atom to form ions ² trends in atomic and ionic size ² chemical reactivity ² colors of atoms and molecules ² interactions of atoms and molecules with light ² magnetic properties of solids ² etc. ± The ______________ is the key to relating chemical and physical properties to electron distribution. 8.2 Characteristics of many-electron atoms Slide No. 4 The Electron Spin Quantum Number ± m s = ________ ____ Quantum Number ² Needed to describe atoms that have more than one _________ ² allowed values are +½ ( , clockwise) and –½ ( , counterclockwise) ± Pauli Exclusion Principle ² No 2 electrons in an atom can have the same _________________ •(n , λ , m λ , m s ) ² There can be at most _ electrons in one orbital (same n, λ , m λ ) but then they have to have opposite ____ (different value for m s ) ± Example: ² The 1s level has n = 1, λ = 0, and m λ = 0. ² Two electrons can go into the 1s level . .. one "up" and one "down" ² These two electrons would be: = 1 , λ = 0, m λ = 0, m s = __ ) = 1 , λ = 0, m λ = 0, m s = __ ) ² This "configuration" describes the two electrons in the ______ atom! 8.2 Characteristics of many-electron atoms
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Slide No. 5 Example of the Pauli Principle ± How many electrons in an atom can have the sublevel designation 4 p ? 8.2 Characteristics of many-electron atoms Slide No. 6 Summary of Quantum Numbers – A Study Guide ± Electrons reside in orbitals . Quantum numbers describe relative energies , sizes , shapes , and orientations of atomic orbitals.
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Chapter 8 notes - Chapter 8: Electron Configurations...

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