CHM1100 MODULE 1 Notes.docx

CHM1100 MODULE 1 Notes.docx - CHM1100 MODULE 1 Observation...

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CHM1100 MODULE 1 Observation- can be made by simply looking around with the naked eye or through the use of sophisticated instrumentation. Hypothesis- is a statement or question posed based on the observation made. This is what ultimately tested to see if the statement or question is valid. Scientific Theory- is based on observations and laws. Theories provide in-depth and full explanations about the world around us. Experiment- a scientific procedure undertaken to make a discovery, test a hypothesis, or demonstrate a known fact. Scientific Law- is a concise statement made after multiple experiments and observations have been conducted by many scientists. A law summarizes the similarities found throughout the successful experiments. SIGNIFICANT FIGURES: Are defined as the non-place-holding digits in a reported measurement; they represent the precision of a measured quantity. Therefore, before discussing significant figures, precision and accuracy need to be explained. ACCURACY and PRECISION: Accuracy is how close a measurement is to the true value; Precision is how close together multiple measurements are together. RULES FOR DETERMINING SIGNIFICANT FIGURES: 1) All non-zero integers or digits are significant 2) There are various rules for zeros.
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i) Zeros are significant- when they are between two integers or when an integer is to the left of the zero and the decimal is present before or after the zero is significant. EXAMPLE: 20.5 , 20.0, or 200 ii) Zeros are NOT significant- when the zero does not have integers to the left but does have integers to the right or when a zero falls at the end of a whole number and the decimal is not present. All of the following examples have 5 significant figures. EXAMPLE: 0.00055023, 3342100, in these examples, 55023 and 33421 are the only significant figures.
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