Lecture15_BirthOfConsMovement.pptx

Lecture15_BirthOfConsMovement.pptx - The Birth of a...

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The Birth of a Political Movement: Barry Goldwater and the Rise of Modern Conservatism
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The Birth of a Political Movement: Barry Goldwater and the Rise of Modern Conservatism 1) Totalitarianism 2) Post-War Intellectuals and the Redefinition of Conservatism Traditionalism Russel Kirk Libertarianism Milton Friedman and Friedrich Hayek Fusionism 3) Building a Conservative Infrastructure William F. Buckley Jr. Intercollegiate Society of Individualists (1953) National Review (1955) Young American for Freedom (1960) 4) The Conservative Movement’s First Champion: Barry Goldwater The Conscience of a Conservative (1960)
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The Making of a Totalitarian State 1) Usually starts when a country/society is hit with a major economic/social problem. 2) An individual/small group declared that society is so broken that it cannot be reformed. It has to be completely transformed. 3) Then he/they present a plan that would achieve this radical and thorough transformation. This utopian claim (making society “perfect”) is what legitimizes the existence of a totalitarian state 4) The officially proclaimed ideology penetrates into the deepest reaches of societal structure and the totalitarian government seeks to completely control the thoughts and actions of its citizen. No individual liberties at any level 5) In its effort to bring about this utopian change, a totalitarian regime will centralize all power in the state to control virtually all aspects of life, including the economy, education, art, science, private life and morals of citizens. Not democratic, but dictatorial regime 6) This way, it can monopolize public discourse through state-own media to propagate its ideology, prohibits opposition parties, and criminalize individual opposition to the state and its claims. Totalitarian regimes are thus marked by political repression, control over the economy, restriction of speech, mass surveillance, secret police, and widespread use of state terrorism.
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Characteristics of Totalitarianism 1) Elaborate guiding ideology to TRANSFORM society. This differentiate totalitarianism from authoritarianism or other forms of dictatorship. 2) Single mass party, typically led by a dictator or a small elite. 3) Everyone must sacrifice for the COLLECTIVE Only society matters, not individuals 4) State implements a system of terror, using such widespread surveillance, secret police, and violence. 5) State has monopoly on weapons and on legitimate violence 6) State has monopoly on the means of communication. 1) No freedom of press, of thought, or of speech 7) Central direction and control of the economy through state planning. No free market
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Post-War Intellectuals and the Redefinition of Conservatism It took place mostly in the 1950s Most conservative intellectuals reacted to the rise of totalitarianism Some were people who had escaped to the U.S. to flee from Nazism or Communism regimes.
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