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Unformatted text preview: here, but not to the extent as it does in the West 1 POLI 300-Social and Political Philosophy (Prof. Lanz) Exam One Philosophy philo meaning love and sophia meaning wisdom The love of wisdom What is politics?-The study of power. -Philosophical question: How is this power to be used and by who?-Where does power come from? (economy, God, etc)-Freedom is an important concept (there needs to be a sweet medium)-Too little freedom is bad (tyranny)-Too much freedom is bad (anarchy)-Politics can be described as the balance of power.-freedom vs order-many vs one Types of Power- force (hard power)-using the threat of violence or retalitation to get one to do what one wants them to-constatly used by governments-influence (soft power)-convince someone to do something through reason and seduction-authority-power that people willingly want to follow (ie: religion, parents)-in all societies, people follow some form of authority-collective vs singular Types of Government-Government, like authority, exists in all societies.-Government is the organization of power-control over territory and people-accepted by the people-Hunter and Gatherer is the most basic form of government (chief and elders)-Monarchy is another type of Government-The modern state is the largest, most complex form of government-consists of several different governments (democratic, authoritarian, etc)-tends to be secular (Islamic societies is an exception)-today industry and economics is the basis of government, rather than religion.-Industrial Revolution sparked growth-emerged around 1500 AD-monopolizes power Three Spheres of Society (Social Spheres)-Government , which is based on force-Marketplace , based on free exchange in which there is a lack of coercion-Family and Community , charity based on love and trust (some consider this to be the basis of Governments; however, a recent shift to the marketplace has been made.) 2 Classical Types of Government- one monarchy tyranny-few aristocracy oligarchy(plutocracy-more modern)-many democracy anarchy Roots of The West-More than a group of countries, but rather a group of shared social and political philosophical ideas-Began in Greece and the Middle East Qualaties of The West-Reason-Greece is the origin of abstract reason-The mind can understand and control nature.-Monotheism-Began in Greece (Judaism)-Love-Placing the life of others above yourself-Self sacrifice Ancient Greece-Athens and Sparta-began c. 5000 years ago-known for its thinkers (philosophers) and its architecture and theatre Several types of government existed in Greek history- demos meaning the people (democracy)- tyramos meaning evil, tyrant (tyranny)-the beginning of philosophy began around 800 BC pre-Socratic era (800-500 BC)-first expressed in theatre and stories Pre-Socratic Era-800-500 BC-Political philosophy:-Heraclitus reality was many, change is constant, you never step in the same river twice, there is a hidden underlying principle...
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