CER BIO.docx - C-E-R How can chemical toxins affect signal transmission in the nervous system Part 1 Planning Based on the articles you read make a

CER BIO.docx - C-E-R How can chemical toxins affect signal...

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C-E-R: How can chemical toxins affect signal transmission in the nervous system? Part 1: Planning -- Based on the articles you read, make a claim that answers the following question: “What types of effects can chemical toxins have on nerve signaling?” CLAIM : Chemical toxins can affect nerve signaling by manipulating neurotransmitters, ion channels, and ion concentration. Support your claim with at least 3 pieces of EVIDENCE from the article you read: 1. “Nerve agents act by blocking acetylcholinesterase, the enzyme that breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, in the synaptic cleft of neuromuscular junctions.” Resource 1 2. “Specifically, batrachotoxin produces increased permeability of a resting cell membrane to sodium ions, essentially causing voltage-gated sodium channels in a nervous system cell to be persistently activated, even at resting potential.” Resource 2 3. “potassium chloride results in significant cardiac effects due to hyperkalemia (excess of potassium). While potassium is a necessary and essential element in the body, and the main intracellular cation, there is an active and continuous transport of potassium into the cell.” Resource 3 Part 2: Connecting Evidence to your Claim -- Write a paragraph that connects your claim with your evidence (yes, you’ll need to re-write both your claim and evidence). Your goal is to convince the reader of your claim by explaining how your evidence supports your claim . NOTE : Your reasoning must include a specific and logical explanation of how each toxin interferes with nerve signaling. For example: “Toxin X affects the ability of the sodium-potassium pump to pump sodium and potassium back to their original positions, which in turn leads to the i nability of the nerve cell to re- establish resting potential of -70 mV. Because the cell remains in a hyperpolarized state, nerve signal transmission will be halted altogether as the cell is unable to reach threshold potential to send another action potential.” Chemical toxins can affect nerve signaling by manipulating neurotransmitters, ion channels, and ion concentration. For instance, nerve agents work by blocking acetylcholinesterase, which is the enzyme responsible for breaking down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the synaptic junction. Acetylcholine is responsible for continuing the neural impulse to muscle cells and thus contracting the muscle. If the breakdown of Acetylcholine is blocked, the muscles will be constantly contracting, unable to relax. This will result in symptoms such as muscle spasms, convulsions, bronchoconstrictions, slurred speech, constriction of pupils, nausea, and eventual muscle weakness and paralysis. Additionally, batrachotoxins in frog poison can increase the permeability of a resting cell membrane to sodium ions.
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  • Fall '15
  • Eric Martin
  • Nerve agent

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