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Unformatted text preview: Tafsir Ibn Kathir JUZJ~MMA Part 30 of the Qur'ân 9 ' t) Translated by Sameh Strauch Revised by Ibrahim M. Kunna And Abu Aya Sulaiman 'Abdus-Sabur ~L~l ~W ~6t1l )bJl International Islamie Publishing House IIPH Contents Publisher Note 09 Sürat An-Naba' 11 Sürat An-Nazi Iii! 25 Sürat 'Abasa 39 Sürat At-Takwir 51 Sürat Al-Infitër 65 Sürat Al-Mutaffifin 71 Sürat Al-Inshiqëq 85 Sürat Al-Buriii 95 Sürat At- Tariq 109 Sürat Al-'Ala 115 Sürat Al-Ghëshiya 123 Sürat Al-Fajr 131 Sürat Al-Balad 145 Sürat Ash-Shams 155 Sürat Al-Lail 163 Sürat Aç/-l)uIJa 171 Sirat Al-Inshirëh 179 Sirat At-Tm 185 Sïrat Al- 'Alaq 189 Sirat Al-Qadr 195 SrJratAl-Bayyinah 203 SrJrat Az-Zalzalah 209 Strat Al- 'Âadiyë: 215 Sirat Al-Qiiriy 'ah 219 Sirat At-Takiithur 223 Sirat Al- 'A$'" 229 Sirat Al-Humazah 231 Sûimt Al-Fil 235 S ûrat Quraish 245 Sirat AI-Ma'ÜJ2 249 Sûrat Al-Kauthar 253 Sirat [email protected]ÜJ2 259 Sûrat An-Nasr 263 S ûrat Al-Masad 269 Sürat Al-Ikhlas 273 Sürah Al-Falaq 281 Sürat An- Nës 287 Glossary 291 Symbols Directory 301 Transliteration Chart 303 Publisher's Note AlI praise is for Allah (~), Rabb of the Worlds and peace and blessings be on Muhammad, bis family and companions and the believers till the Last Day. Before you is the explanation of the last 37 Süras of the Noble Qur'ân by the great Mufassir Ibn KathIr. His Tafsir (explanation) has been recognised by the majority of the scholars as one of the best. His excellence stemmed from the fact that he adopted the standard and correct method in approaching this work wbich is, the explanation of the Qur'ân by the Qur'ân itself, then by the Sunnah, then by the Companions, then by language and lastly by the opinion ofthe scholars of the Sunnah, in that order. By maintaining this order, Ibn KathIr has preserved the Book of Allah (~) from the false interpretations of the pbilosophers and rationalists. Sameh Strauch who translated this book was born in the city of Liverpool in the UK. He embraced Islam in London at the age of 28 years in 1983. In 1985 he was accepted to study in Madïnah University, where he remained for a period of four years. He worked in Pakistan, U.A.E. and Saudi Arabia in the field of Da'wah and propagation. We ask Allah (~), the Majestic, to make this book a source of inspiration to those who strive in His Cause and a proof against those who try to distort the truth by deviant Tafsir. Muhammad Abdul Muhsin AI Tuwaijri International lslamk Publishing House Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Sûrat An-Naha' The Tidings Qur'an: 78 ln the Name of Allah, the AII-Compassionate AII-Merciful .... J f t 0~'::"-'-~ ~ U .L-\\ J ~~-~~I.$~ v 0 0 ft _\:":\1 GI . ~ v~;. o b~ uPJ)rl ~ °r---lÎ 0 t$ .... .... .Ll;;,.) 0 "',,; 1 t$ , J ;J ~. .... "" .... .... ~" 0 ~;O. \ l""""'~ ,; , .... , ~ l:o. _~p ~,. ,. J ,. ,. 11 0,.,. "" ,. ~0 0 ~ "jS' 0 -;o:~ f t w.~ '~'-:'\I '::.1:;,. •. )v J"t-' ) blf} J~I) 11 ......... ...." r-s J 0........ 8 1;:') .... • • ~ C~ 0 ~~ ~t. ~:.JI~I ~ <"-, .... 0 _ I_t:..;.. V-v .r-« 0 ~ "jS' 0 \j~ ~Y ':1:;") 0 ~\)jÎ f t bl~ v ." ,. J .... ft $"" 0.... 11 ..... , ft V ...." .... "" L....\.J.~..r,0111 0 .... 0 ~~) ~\~ ':1:;") :~';I-~WI) ~ üt2i uG,.~ 0 Gç~ l;;.. 8;';1) 1. About what do they question one another? ~ 2. It is of the Awful Tidings. 3. Conceming which they are in disagreement. 4. Verily, they will come to know! 5. Again, verily they will come to know! 6. Have We not made the earth an expanse, 7. And the mountains as pegs? 8. And We have created you in pairs. 9. And We have appointed your sleep for repose. 10. And We have appointed the nlght as a doak. 11. And We have appointed the day for Iivelihood. 12. And We built over you seven strong. 13. And have appointed a dazzling lamp. 14. And have sent down From the rainy douds pouling water. 12 SÜTat An-Nabë' 15. Thereby producing grain and plant. 16. And gardens of luxurious growth. Allah (~) 'The Exalted', says about the unbelievers: (About what do they question each other?) That is, about what exactly are they in disagreement concerning the Day of Resurrection? These are the Awful Tidings. According to Qatadah' and Ibn Zaid,2 the Awful Tidings refer to the resurrection ofmankind after their death. It was also stated by Mujahid' that it referred to the Qur'ân, but the first explanation is more correct, because of the following verse: (Concerning which they are in disagreement) That is, sorne of them believe in it while others reject it. Then Allah (~) says, referring to those who reject it: (Verily, they will come to knowl) and: (Again, verily they will come to knowl) This is a strong warning and a promise of which there is no doubt. After this, Allah (~), makes clear His ability to create the most wondrous things, proving that He is able to do as He wills, such as the resurrection of mankind or anything else that He wills. (Have We not made the earth an expanse?) That is, levelled or flattened and manageable for His creation, settled continents. (And the mountains as pegs) That is, He made the mountains like tent pegs fixing the earth, so that it does not shake and convulse and disturb those who are upon it. Then He (~) says: (And We have created you in pairs) That is, male and female, that they may please and comfort one another; and in this way, propagation occurs, as in the Words of Allah (~): 1 Qatadah Ibn Di'amI As-Sadüsï: A Tabi 'Z(one ofthose who met one or more of the Companions) who studied tafsir from the Companion, Ibn Mas'üd; a native of Basra, he was blind from birth and was renowned for his exceptional memory. 2 Ibn Zaid: It would appear that Ibn Kathrr is referring here to Muhammad Ibn Zaid Ibn 'Abdullah Ibn 'Umar Al-MadanI, and Allah (fi) knows best. He is described as a reliable source of Hadïth by Ibn Hajr, 3 Abul l;Ia.üaj Mujahid Ibn Jabr Al-MakkI: A Tabi 'ïand student of the Companion, Ibn 'Abbas ("). He died in the year 104 A. H. aged 83. Tafsïr Ibn Katïr Juz 'Amma . .. "" "" #0 J ..,;1 "."'" ·i J"" J ('~~ 1::" \'."1\ l'~CD :\ \..:.,.\ D('~:i D .: t..r") ~. ~ )) 0'" r-----"'""'"::": "" r--""""'-" ". ('" : J".". ('\ '-I~ r--"" o-: ~~\ - i j)\) 13 or "" 0\ 4,jt,;\ D, h "-~) fi 'JS ".". ~ ~)) 'JS"" 0.); (And arnongst His signs are that He created for you wives from among yourselves that you may find repose in them and that He has placed between you affection and mercy) (Qur'ân 30: 21) Then He (~) says: (And We have appointed your sleep for repose) That is, as a break from the activity of the day, from the repetition and toil oflife during the working day. (And We have appointed the night as a cloak} That is, the darkness envelops man as though wrapping him in a black garment, as in His Words: (t : ~~, - ~\) ~ ti-'".l; \~1, JD\~ ~ , (By the night as it conceals the day) (Qur'ân 91: 4) (And We have appointed the day for llveflhood} That is, We have made the day to begin in the east, lighting the sky and enabling people to go about their daily lives, and to earn their living and conduct their business and so on. (And We built over you seven strong) This means the seven heavens in their spaciousness, their lofty elevation, their perfection, their excellence, their beautification with the heavenly bodies; and so Allah (~) says: (And have appointed a dazzling lamp) It means the illuminating sun, lighting the whole world, shedding its glow upon all the people of the earth. (And We have sent down from the rainclouds pouringwater) According to the most reliable sources, the Arabie word: a/­ mu '$iriit, used in this verse, refers to rainc1ouds, and not - as claimed by sorne - the wind or the sky. This was the view of Ibn 'Abbas (.) 'May Allah be pleased with him.' Regarding (pouring water), the word used in Arabie is: (hajj/fi which, according to At-Tabârï, means continually pouring rather than abundant as suggested by sorne commentators. However, in J4 Sirat An-NaM' a well known I:Iadïth a woman who had menses said to the Prophet (~) 'Blessings and Peace be upon him', that her blood flow was great and in describing it, used the word: thajj (from the same root as thajj~) which indicates that the word may be used to mean abundance. (Thereby producing grain and plant) That is, We produce by this abundant water that which is good, beneficial and blessed. (grain) is for livestock and domesticated animaIs and (plant) refers to greens eaten ripe and fresh, and (gardens) means orchards and gardens producing fruits of various kinds, colours, tastes and fragrances - even in one patch of land, all together. This is why Allah (~) said: (And gardens of luxurious growth) which means - according to Ibn 'Abbas (.) and others: assembled together. ~ .......". '" «) L..>.-\~i 0 j L J !;.aJ\ .,. 9 ... ... . \ A L,( , ~L...5:j Ù. v . r-r: , '" J J.,. o~ J~ ':1 ... 0'" "\~, ,s...... J'" J 'JI}......... '" ~ i"; «) \.j~ Jo... JG:JI .ft . ..::../.... f.:"'"J '\\oIT , , ,s ... 0 . . . OlS' .,. ~I i"; O~ ~ ... ... J ... J ... L,\'Oi ~~ ~ï.:.:J\ ,~ • Y. ,J .,..,.,s .. o ~~Î ~ ~':1 (» ~~ ~t,k.LJ o bL.o~ ~lS' r~6;" ,s fi -II , ,s :s ~<:o'r\.ftljl; ~. '\\oIT J, , ,s...... 1S ,s .,. ... ... .p r.'. .ftliGJ ~':1\AL,('. ':1 b·'I:~ ~ .r '\\oIT _, • '\\oIT • r" J f. ~ , c ~t:f ;\~',a;.f .~:;. JS'~ o ~\4 4Ç~ i;lS-'~ e ~~ 0;':;' ' (T'. -, V : ~~I - ,s... .WI) .,. J. ...... 0 J J,. ~ ~\~ ':1~ ~~; ~ IjJi; 17. Assuredly the Day of Decision is a fixed time. 18. A day when the trumpet is blown and you come forth in multitudes. 19. And the heaven is opened and becomes as gares. 20. And the hills are set in motion and become as a mirage. 2 1. 22. 23. 24. Surely Hell lurks in ambush. A home for the rebellious. They will abide therein for ages. Therein they will taste neither coolness nor [any] drink. Tafsir Ibn Katir Juz 'Amma 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 15 Except boilingwater and a paralyzing cold. A reward proportioned. Assuredly they looked not for a reckoning. They called Our Signs faIse with a strong denial. We have recorded everything in a book. So taste, no increase do We give you except of tonnent. (Assuredly the Day of Decision is a tixed tlme) He (~) infonns us about the Day of Decision; that is, it is a fixed day whose appointment can neither he delayed nor brought forward and its date is not known to anyone except Allah (~) as in His Words: (' d : J Jo." ". ~'il-.)."..) "'t ~..,..w ~~ ~1 . . <II J.J.o1I"Jo,' I).?Y l:. Co..,? ' (And We will not delay it beyond its tixed time) (Qur'ân Il: 104) (A day when the trurnpet is blown and you come forth in multitudes) According to At-raban, it means that every community will come forth with its Messenger (~), as in the Words ofHim: el' (V, : .J"~' ~.,'., , ~'il - ~\.r")'\) "'t ~Co~ d U\ , " , J5' Iy..li r y. li. ? (On that Day We will cali forth every people with their Imam [i.e. their Prophet]) (Qur'ân 17: 71) Bukhârï reports, on the authority of Abü Hurairah (~), that the Messenger of Allah (~) said: "Between the two blows (ofthe trumpet) is forty." They asked: "Forty days?" He replied: "1refuse (to answer)." They asked: "Forty years?" He said: "1 refuse." Then he said: "Then Allah (~) will send down from the heavens water causing mankind to grow like vegetables (from the earth). Nothing remains of man except the coccyx (tail bone) and from it mankind will be (re-) created on the Day of Resurrection." (And the heaven is opened and becomes as gates) That is, it will become a way for the descent of the angels. (And the hills are set in motion and become as a mirage) This is like the Words ofHim (~): 16 SÜTat An-Naha' (AA: ~'1I-J..;l\) ~ ~~\ ~ ~ ~~ ~~~ \8~ ;J J~I ($)~ ~ (And you will see the mountains and think them fixed and immovable but they will pass away as do the cloues) (Qur'ân 27: 88) And Ris Words: J (0: 0 0 J ... 0 J J ... ~'1\-6.&-)W\)~ J'pl ~l5' J~\ I.J~) ~ ~ ~ ~ (And the mountains will become as carded wool) (Qur'ân 101: 5) (And become as a mirage) That is, they will appear to the onlooker to be something substantial, when in fact they are as nothing; after this, they will disappear entirely, leaving no trace ­ as Allah (~) says: .ft v # • #... ~ ~\j J...... lA) D.ft . v u:...s '-ri) ,~ -:. ~ .~ .r: l~. JW\ . ~ ~It..; h i ', -.;r y.) P J # 0 J... # (\ .V-\.o: 0 t ~'1\-4...J.) ~ ~\ ... ':1) k #- ... ... '" l>.-~ ~ ($) 'Y (And theyask you conceming the mountains, say [to them]: "My Rabb will blast them and scatter them as particles of dust. Then He shallleave them as a level smooth plain. You will see therein nothing crooked or curved") (Qur'ân 20: 105-107) And Re (~) says: "... (tv: .... ...... 0 ...... ~'1\-~I)~ oj~li -.;p}11 ($)) J~I ~ i";) ~ (A day on which We move the mountains and you will see the earth as a levelled plain) (Qur'an 18: 47) (Verily, Hell lurks in ambush) That is to say: Hell lies in wait for the rebellious - they are the disobedient, the rejecters who oppose the Messenger. (Verily, Hell lurks in ambush] According to AI-I:Iasan4 and Qatadah, this means that none shall enter Paradise until he is tried by tire; if he is succesful, he will be 4 Al-Hasan AI-B~rI: A Tahi 'ïand student of the Companion, Ibn Mas'üd (.). Tafsïr Ibn Katïr Juz 'Amma 17 saved, and if not he will remain in the Hell-fire, According to Ath-Thawrï,' above it are three bridges. (A dwelling place for those who transgress) That is, a place to which they are sent, which is unstable their etemal abode, their unalterable fate. (They will abide therein for ages) Scholars have disagreed as to what constitutes ages;' it was said: Eighty years, each day of which equals a thousand earthly years. Sorne said seventy years and others said forty years and even three hundred years. It was narrated that the Prophet (~) said: "It is equivalent to thirty million years." - However, this is an extremely weak narration. It is also reported that the Prophet (~) said that it is eighty years and more. According to As-Suddï" (They will abide therein for ages) means seven hundred ages, each one lasting seventy years, each year lasting three hundred and sixty days and each day like a thousand earthly years. According to Muqâtil Ibn Hayyân, this verse has been abrogated by the verse: (Sa taste (that which you have eamed): No increase shall we give you except in tonnent) According to At-raban, it is possible that this verse is connected to the verse: (Therein they will taste neither coolness nor [any} drink), then Allah (~) will make for them a punishment of another kind. And the correct opinion is that it is a punishment without end as Qatadah and RabI's said, and he quotes Al-Hasan AI-Ba~rI who said that A1Jqab implies no limit 5 Sufyan Ibn Sa'td Ibn Masrüq Ath-Thawrt: Known as Abu 'Abdullah, he was a great scholar oî fiqh' and Hadïth and was a renowned Imam. He died at the age of sixt y-four years in 61 A. H. 6 The word used in Arabie is: AWiih, a plural whose singular is fruqub, or buqb, or hiqban a period oftime. The disagreement of the scholars was over the precise length ofthat period. 7 As-Suddï: Ibn Hajr Al-' Asqalânïlists a number of scholarsthroughoutthe ages who bear the name As-Suddïand it is unclear10me 10which ofthem Ibn KathTr is referring. S Ar-Rabï' Ibn Anas Al-Bakrï Al-Basrï Al-Khurasanï: A Tiihi'ïfrom MadInah, he narrated from Anas Ibn Malik, Abul 'Âliyah and Al-Hasan AI-B~rI. He later settIed in north west Iran. He died in 139 A.H. 18 SÜTat An-Naha' and it means to remain in the Fire although it has been said that the huqub is seventy years, each one equivalent to a thousand earthly years. According to Sa'Id Ibn Qatâdah, it is a period without end, since each buqub is followed by another buqub without cessation. Rabi' Ibn Anas says that no one knows the length of time except Allah (~). (There/n they will taste ne/ther coolness nor [any] drink) That is, they wiJl not find in Hell any coolness for their hearts, nor good drinks to nourish and refresh them; and so Allah (~) says: (Except boil/ngwater and a paralyz/ng cold) As for the paralyzing coId, according to Abul 'Âliyah" it refers to a drink composed of the blood, pus, sweat and tears ofthe inhabitants of the Hell-fire. At-Tabart says that what is meant by the words: (There/n they will taste neither coolness) refers to sleep; that is, they will not taste sleep therein. This explanation was also mentioned by Ibn lO Abi ijatim and Al-Baghawï" (A reward pronorttoned) That is, this is the punishment they will meet because of the immoral deeds which they did in this life, So said Qatâdah, Mujâhid and others. Then Allah (~) says: (Assuredly they looked not for a reckoning) They did not believe in an after-life where they would be held accountable for their deeds in this life. (They calied our signs false with a strong den/al) They rejected the proofs of Allah (il!) sent to His creatures by way of His Messenger, accusing him of lying and opposing him. (We have recorded everyth/ng in a book) That is, He knows the actions of all His slaves and has recorded them to be used for 9 Abul 'Âliyah Rufa'i Ibn Mihran Ar-Riyahï: A T5bi'ïin Madïnah. Originally from Basra in 'Iraq, he heard from many Companions, inc1uding Ibn 'Abbas, Ibn Mas'üd and Ubayy Ibn Ka'ab (.). His students included Qatâdah and Rabr' Ibn Anas. 10 'Abdul-Rahman Ibn Muhammad Ibn IdrIs Ibn Abo Hatirn: A great Muslim scholar of the tenth century (C.E.) and a mufassir (scholar of taftn-). II Al-Husain Ibn Mas'üd Ibn Muhammad Al-Baghawï: A great Muslim scholar, his taftn- was praised by Ibn Kathïr. He was a renowned scholar ofI:ladnh,fiqh and taftn-o He died in the year 516 A.H. at more than eighty years of age. Tafsê:Ibn Katè Juz 'Amma 19 or against them and He will recompense them accordingly - if good, with good and if evil, with evil. (So taste, no increase do We give you except of tonnent) That is, it will be said to the people of the Hell-tire: "Taste the Fire which you have earned; We will not increase for you anything except punishment, with another the same as it, then another similar to that." According to'Abdullah Ibn 'Amr (.l2 no stronger verse has been revealed conceming the people of the Hell-tire than this: (So tastej no increase do we give you except of torment) He (Ibn 'Amr) said their punishment is increased forever. 2" ., ~ L-...\S'J vA ~ t',. t ~ ,. ,. _ t' d L.L-- ~ ~ .: r·~. A or.t. ~" .) ? v :.r " 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. ~ t' _ .,,. L.\.lS'" . ~.... t"'" L..,(e, A L.G.\ ~··ï:b. . f ~(<" . ~ .Y J v . J~ ~ A ~ ~ 1/1II ~,."" 'Y J \r_!.I '" \.~ :r.ij:'::11 0\• .~ ~ V) ~ 'Y vA m".:l~ ( n-n : ~\l1 - ~WI) r:' .. 0 J~. ~ ~ ~ Verily, for the dutiful is achievement ­ Gardens enclosed and vineyards, And maidens for companions, And a full eup, There they never hear vain discourse nor Iying­ Requital from your Lord - a gift in payment. Allah (~) says, concerning those who are fortunate and that which He has prepared for them of honour and bliss: (Verily, for the dutiful is achlevement) According to Ibn 'Abbas (.), (achievement) means a place of rest and recreation; according to Mujâhid and Qatâdah, they have succeeded and been saved from the Fire. It is clear however, that the saying of Ibn 'Abbas (.) is more correct because Allah (~) says after that: 12 'Abdullah Ibn •Amr: The son of 'Amr Ibn 'AI-' Aas, he narrated a large number of Hadïth from the Prophet (~) - Abu Hurairah (40) said that he had more Hadïth than himself, due to his ability to write. 20 SÜTat An-Naha' (Gardens enclosed and vineyards) The gardens and orchards are of dates and other fruits. 13 (And maidens for companions) This means beautiful women, having eyes with a marked contrast between white and black. Ibn 'Abbas (.) and others said that the Arabie word used in the verse: kawë'ib means shapely; that is, they are buxom women, firm of figure because they are virgins, Arab women, all of the same age. It is narrated from Abu Umâmah (.) that he said that Allah's Messenger (~) said: Surely the garments of the people of Paradise come from the pleasure of Allah (~), and as surely, the clouds pass over them and call to them: "Oh, people of Paradise! With what would you like us to shower you?" Then they will shower them with beautiful, b...
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