Module 4 Micro Electromechanical System Syllabus:Advantages and Applications, MEMS micro sensors and actuators, Manufacturing process: Bulk micro machining and surface micromachining, MEMS accelerometers. Virtual instrumentation system: architecture of virtual instruments – Virtual instruments and traditional instruments – concepts of graphical programming 4.1 Introduction This report deals with the emerging field of micro-electromechanical systems, or MEMS. MEMS is a process technology used to create tiny integrated devices or systems that combine mechanical and electrical components. They are fabricated using integrated circuit (IC) batch processing techniques and can range in size from a few micrometers to millimetres. These devices (or systems) have the ability to sense, control and actuate on the micro scale, and generate effects on the macro scale. The micro mechanical device embedded with electronics/electrical system fabricated through a mix of integrated circuit manufacturing and micro-machining process where material is shaped by etching away micro layers is called Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS). The intelligent electronic system part is integrated in the same way of IC device fabrication. The most popular material used for MEMS is Silicon for its semiconductor, physical and commercial properties. Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems consists of mechanical elements, sensors, actuators, and electrical and electronics devices on a common silicon substrate which is shown schematically in Figure 1. Fig. 1. Schematic illustration of MEMS components. The sensors in MEMS gather information from the environment through measuring mechanical, thermal, biological, chemical, optical, and magnetic phenomena. The electronics then process the information derived from the sensors and through some decision making capability direct the actuators to respond by moving, positioning, regulating, pumping, and filtering, thereby controlling the environment for some desired outcome or purpose.