Food Science 1-5 review

Food Science 1-5 review - REWIEW 17/02/2008 17:50:00 Lesson...

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Unformatted text preview: REWIEW 17/02/2008 17:50:00 Lesson 1 Describe a nutrient, essential nutrient and deficiency (related to food) Nutrient- is any substance in food that the body can use to obtain energy, synthesize tissues or regulate functions Essential nutrient- fall into 6 categories water, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins and minerals Deficiency- a deficiency is the sign of a lack of nutrient in the diet. For example- scurvy(vitamin C) goiter (iodine) List the 3 major functions of dietary nutrients and associate dietary nutrients with each f unction Contribute to cell and body structure o Lipids o Protein o Water o minerals Provide energy o Carbohydrates o Lipids o protein Regulate processes o Lipids o Proteins o Vitamins o Minerals Distinguish organic nutrients from inorganic nutrients Organic(contain carbon)- Carbohydrates, lipids, prteins and vitamins Inorganic(no carbon)- Minerals and water Define a calorie; and describe a food calorie 1 food calorie=1 kilocalorie= 1000 calories Describe how calories are measured and which food components provide Calories (and how much) Carbs,proteins= 4 cal/gm Lipids= 9 cal/gm Define digestion and absorption Digestion chemical and physical breakdown of food into smaller units Absorption movement of digested nutrients from the GI tract into the bloodstream Describe the features of the GI tract, and explain the phases of digestion and absorption Phases o Ingestion: recept and softening of food in the mouth o Transport of ingested food o Secretion of digestive enzymes, acid, mucus and bile o Absorption of the end products of digestion o Movement of undigested material o Elimination of digestive waste products Taste, Smell & Enjoy o Salivary glands secrete saliva into the oral cavity, moistening our food and starting the process of chemical digestion o 1.5 liters a day of saliva o chewing begins mechanical digestions of food o alcohol absorption begins in the mouth and esophagus Small Intestine: Powerhouse of Digestion and Absorption o Duodenum- secretions from the pancreas neutralize the high acid of the stomach contents, creating a favorable environment for enzymes to digest fats carbs, and proteins. Vitamins, minerals and cholesterol are absorbed unchanged. o Jejunum digested nutrients are absorbed o ileum- absorption is completed in the ileum Absorptive Structure of the Small Intestine o Villi- the inner surface of the small intestine is wrinkled into folds which are carpeted with the finger like projections called villi o Microvilli- each cell lining the villi is carpeted with 1000 hair-like projections called microvilli o Pathway for digested nutrients: Nutrients Microvilli Epithelial cells Interior of villi Blood or lymph Large Intestine: Reservoir and Absorber o Colan Bacterial digestion of fiber relases a small amount of absorbable food energy Production of vitamin k and gas Remaining water is absorbed...
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This note was uploaded on 03/31/2008 for the course FOOD SCI 120 taught by Professor Ingraham during the Spring '08 term at Wisconsin.

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Food Science 1-5 review - REWIEW 17/02/2008 17:50:00 Lesson...

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