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Unformatted text preview: Sociology 250 Oct 1- Next paper due week after fall break- Durkheim evaluation paper: main themes, concepts, interrelation, criticism Productivity versus Alienation- Marx: considered as a conflict theorist, everything is focused around conflict, how society functions amist conflict- Weber: sometimes considered as a conflict theorist; considered capitalism and its problems; alienation, disenchantment, loss of meaning Durkheim, Division of Labor- Functionalist, how society functions smoothly, what makes society function smoothly; social bonds versus autonomy/individuality; how individuality can exist when social bonds are so important “For since nothing restrains the forces present from reacting together, or prescribes limits for them that they are obliged to respect, they tend to grow beyond all bounds, each clashing with the other, each warding off and weakening the other.” (p xxxii)- “Men’s passions are only stayed by a moral presence they respect ” (p xxxii)- Explores how do we prevent conflict/overwhelming rule of self-interest “By nature we are not inclined to curb ourselves and exercise restraint. Thus unless we are continually exhorted to exert that control over ourselves without which there can be no morality, how may we acquire the habit of doing so? If, in activities that almost completely fill our days, we follow no rule save that of our own self-interest, as we understand it, how then can we acquire a taste for altruism, for forgetfulness of self and sacrifice?” (p xxxiv)- Bonds prevent social decay; Specialization (increase productivity) expands population “I can be free only in so far as the other person is prevented from turning to his own benefit that superiority, whether physical, economic or of any other kind, which he possesses, in order to fetter my liberty. Only a social rule can serve as a barrier against such abuses of power.” (p xxxiii) * Mechanical Solidarity – Solidarity on the basis of similarity (p 126, p 128) “this organization, just like that of the horde, whose extension it merely is, plainly does not possess any other solidarity save that which derives from similarities.”- Like primitive society- How is solidarity maintained in mechanical societies? “This is why we see such peoples, lacking any other internal organization, can only hold together through the action of external circumstances (enforcing through persecution, isolation, competition, limited resources) and through the habit (norms, values, beliefs, tradition cf. Weber’s legitimacy of domination) of living their life in common ” (p 129)- How do we get tradition and habit? “We know that in them religion pervades the whole of social life. This is because social life is made up almost entirely of common beliefs and practices that draw from their unanimous acceptance a very special kind of intensity” (p 132)- Religion pervades everything, is the front and center in mechanical solidarity “We know that in them religion pervades the whole of social life. This is because “We know that in them religion pervades the whole of social life....
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