Lecture8_AnimalHumanResearch.pdf - Ethics in Science and \u0000\b\u001d Engineering Bioengineering 100 Fall 2014 UC Berkeley Reading Assignment Chap 8 Budinger

Lecture8_AnimalHumanResearch.pdf - Ethics in Science and...

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Lecture 8 Ethics in Science and Engineering Bioengineering 100 Fall 2014 UC Berkeley Reading Assignment: Chap. 8: Budinger & Budinger Homework #1 is graded and posted
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Lecture 8 Animal Research 1. Historical Ethical Perspective on Animal Research (a) René Descartes (1596-1650) and Vivisectionists (b) Jeremy Bentham (hedonistic calculus) (c) Do animals feel pain? Acquire the facts 2. Modern Ethical Theories of Animal Research: The contemporary approach to ethics of animal research tries to grapple with the calculus of the moral worth of animal lives relative to human lives. It extends beyond the calculus of suffering. (a) Preference Utilitarianism (Peter Singer) (1-5) “specieism” “Marginal” Cases Generalization Argument Preference Utilitarianism no sentinent/lower order cognitive ability: pleasure/pain sentinent or lower order cognitive ability: desire, intent, preferences, understanding.
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Lecture 8 Animal Research (b) Rights/Kantian (Tom Regan) (6) consider all animals as ends in themselves Moral worth of animals is same as human (c) Human Dominion (Darwinian)(7-10) Moral worth decided by ability for language or moral reasoning- possessed only by humans. Darwinian concept that evolution has driven these human cognitive abilities for language and moral reasoning What is moral worth of animal lives relative to human lives – how similar they are to humans in terms of cognitive intelligence and emotional function What is the importance of the research?
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Lecture 8 Animal Research (11-13) Three Rs for Animal Research (USDA/AVMA) Replacement: When it is possible to use methodology that does not use animals, replace the animal use methodology. When it is possible to use a morally “lower” species of animal, replace the “higher” species with the lower. Reduction: When possible to answer research question using smaller number of animals, reduce number of animals used Refinement: Refine research methods, techniques, protocols and tools to reduce the need for animals in research and to reduce harm to animals such as pain, suffering, disability, and death.
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Lecture 8 Animal Research (11-13) Five Rs for Animal Research (ethicists) Relevance: Research protocols that use animals should address questions that have some scientific, medical, or social relevance that justify risks/harms to animals. Redundancy: avoid redundancy by repeating experiments on animals which have already been done Any one failure of the 5R’s is failure of the animal research experiment – but sound facts and ethical reasoning is a must to define a failure!
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Lecture 8 Case Study [14]: Primate Head Injury In 1983, during a university holiday, members of the Animal Liberation Front (ALF) broke into the laboratory of neurologist Thomas Gennarelli and stole ~60-80 hours of video/audio tape recordings of his research over 5 years on reproducible brain damage using adult monkeys and baboons.
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