Lecture 14 Ethics in Science and EngineeringBioengineering 100Fall 2014UC Berkeley Reading Assignment:Chap. 6: Ethics of Emerging TechnologiesBudinger & Budinger Ending World Hunger. The Promise of Biotechnology and the Threat of Antiscience Zealotry by N. E. Borlaug, Plant Physiol. 2000 October; 124(2): 487–490.Debate #3: Ethics of Genetic Technologies/Stem Cells on Nov. 4
Lecture 14 Genetically Modified Organisms Plants or animals whose genetic makeup is altered through genetic engineering technologies to permanently encode an improved ±functional²trait. GM Plants: improved maintenance (less water, fertilizer, pesticides or herbicides), disease resistance, nutritional value or flavor, engineered medicines, biofuels. GM Animals: improved maintenance (less water, food), disease resistance, growth rates, engineered medicines. Knock-out (or knock-in) genetic modifications to develop human disease models in animals. How many of you support or do not support the use of GMs [A] Support [B] Do Not Support [C] Need more information!
Lecture 14 History of the Green Revolution  The Green Revolution involved the widespread dissemination of western technologies to increase food production in 3rd world nations that were experiencing explosive population growth. Generously funded by the Rockefeller and the Ford Foundations from the 1940’s through to the 1970’s. It emphasized the then emerging technologies of Irrigation, Pesticides, Fertilizers, Mechanization, and…New crop varieties with improved yields It started and was highly successful in Mexico in producing higher-yielding varieties of wheat and to a lesser extent maize. In the 1960³s it extended into India with improved rice-yields, and then into Asian countries, all with success. For various political reasons it never successfully took hold in Africa.
Lecture 14 Technologies of the Green Revolution Scientists such as Norman Borlaug (Noble Peace prize, 1970) created strains of maize, wheat, and rice known as ±high-yielding varieties²(HYVs). [2,3] HYVs significantly outperform traditional varieties in the presence of adequate irrigation, pesticides, and fertilizers. Together these were the transported technologies of the Green Revolution to other countries HYVs have an increased nitrogen-absorbing potential compared to other varieties. Since grains that absorb extra nitrogen typically fall over before harvest, semi-dwarfing genes were also bred into them.
Lecture 14 Fruits of the Green Revolution  From 1960 to 1990 the Green revolution took hold: Food production increased by ~300-1000%. Famine decreased by 20% and caloric intake increased by 25% . Standard of living improved since food was now cheaper.
Lecture 14 Problems from the Green Revolution  •Transition from traditional agriculture to Green Revolution required a big capital outlay that sent many smaller farmers into debt, and even resulted in loss of their farmland.