1. EART 10301 - Composition of the Earth(1).ppt

1. EART 10301 - Composition of the Earth(1).ppt - EART...

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School of Earth Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences (SEAES) Dr Katherine Harrison EART 10301 INTRODUCTION TO THE EARTH 1. Composition of the Earth Dr John Nudds
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Week 1 Monday/Tuesday practical No practical Fri lecture Composition of the Earth Week 2 Monday/Tuesday practical Earthquakes Fri lecture Geological Time Week 3 Monday/Tuesday practical Geological Maps Fri lecture Introduction to Mineralogy Week 4 Monday/Tuesday practical Minerals in hand specimen Fri lecture Rock Forming Minerals Week 5 Monday/Tuesday practical Minerals in thin section Fri lecture Igneous and metam ropcks Week 6 No practical Reading week No lecture Reading week Week 7 Monday/Tuesday practical Igneous and metam rocks Fri lecture Sedimentary rocks Week 8 Monday/Tuesday practical Sedimentary rocks Fri lecture Palaeontology Week 9 Monday/Tuesday practical Palaeontology Fri lecture Plate Tectonics Week 10 Monday/Tuesday practical Plate Tectonics Fri lecture Rock deformation Week 11 Monday/Tuesday practical TEST (25% of mark for module; 75% January exam) No lecture No lecture
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Practical class Monday 10.00am-12.00noon – Petroleum Engineers – 1.45 (Williamson Building) Tuesday 3.00pm-5.00pm – Environmental Scientists – G.45 (Williamson Building) Week 2 - Earthquakes Practical BRING COMPASS, RULER ETC BRING GEOLOGICAL COLUMN CARD Course textbook: Marshak, S. 2008. Portrait of a planet 3 rd edition . Norton & Co., New York, 834pp.
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Marshak, S. 2008. Earth: portrait of a planet. Norton, New York. ISBN 978-0-393-93036-8
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What is geology? Geology is the science and study of the solid and liquid matter that constitutes the Earth. The field of geology encompasses the study of the composition, structure, physical properties, dynamics, and history of Earth materials, and the processes by which they are formed, moved, and changed.
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What is geology ? It includes many branches: Stratigraphy – the history of the Earth – i.e.geological time (L2) Mineralogy – the study of minerals (L3 and L4) Petrology – the study of rocks (L5 and L6) Palaeontology – the study of fossils (L7 and 8) Structural geology and Plate Tectonics (L9 and L10)
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The composition of the Earth Continental crust (solid), 0-70km Oceanic crust (solid), 0-11km Lower mantle (solid), 700-2,990km Outer core (liquid iron), 2,900-4,980km Inner core (solid iron), 4,980-6,370km Upper mantle (plastic) Lithosphere & Asthenosphere (70-250km) Transition zone (250-700km)
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The layers of the Earth First clue to understanding the composition of the interior came from British Astronomer Royal, Nevile Maskelyne in 1776. Measured deflection of plumb bob at Mt Schiehallion in Scotland caused by gravitational pull of the mountain versus the gravitational pull of the Earth.
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The layers of the Earth The apparent difference of latitude between 2 stations on opposite sides of the mountain were compared with the actual difference of latitude.
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