IMPLICATURES - Perea and Cidro.pptx

IMPLICATURES - Perea and Cidro.pptx - IMPLICATURE Jeff...

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IMPLICATURE Jeff Jeremiah C. Perea Marife Cidro Introduction to Semantics and Pragmatics
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Semantics: What the words mean Pragmatics: What the speaker mean “Pragmatics is the study of speaker meaning” (Yule, 2008)
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Pragmatics studies the factors that govern our choice of language in social interactions and the effects of our choice on others - David Crystal
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IMPLICATURES: Clues to Meaning Jeff Jeremiah Perea MA-ESL
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IMPLICATURES The term IMPLICATURE accounts for what a speaker can imply, suggest or mean, as distinct from what the speaker literally says. (Grice, 1975)
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IMPLICATURES It combines the actual words we utter in the context in which we say them.
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Cooperative Principle Whenever there’s ambiguity in what a speaker is saying, the audience should look for the most likely intended meaning of what’s being said, given the context. (Grice, 1975)
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IMPLICATURES Technically, implicatures refer to what is SUGGESTED in an utterance , even though neither expressed nor strictly implied.
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IMPLICATURES Danaerys is meeting a woman this morning.
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IMPLICATURES All months have 28 days.
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IMPLICATURES The sentence did not say “exactly 28 days”. - The sentence is logically correct, however, it feels incomplete. - The conclusion we draw from this incomplete information is what we call IMPLICATURE.
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IMPLICATURES Watson: “Cup of tea would be lovely, thank you.” Mrs. Hudson: “I’m not your housekeeper.”
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IMPLICATURES: CANCELLATION Mrs. Hudson: “I’m not your housekeeper.” Instead of saying, “No, I will not make you tea because I’m not your housekeeper.” The speaker just said, “I’m not your housekeeper” . The idea that Mrs. Hudson said “no”, is the implicature from her utterance.
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IMPLICATURES If the previous conversation is a simple miscommunication on the other hand, then our implicature is wrong. Nevertheless, the statement, “I’m not your housekeeper.” is still true.
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IMPLICATURES Try to analyze the implicature in this utterance: Watson: “Cup of tea would be lovely, thank you.”
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IMPLICATURES Implicatures can provide the intended meaning but sometimes it can be misleading.
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ENTAILMENTS The truth of one implies the truth of the other because of the MEANINGS of the words involved. (Goddard, 1998)
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ENTAILMENTS It logically follows from what is asserted in an utterance. (Yule, 1996)
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ENTAILMENTS The guards broke the window. The window broke. (The second sentence can not be false because you already understand that the window cannot be broken if it weren’t for the guards.)
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ENTAILMENTS Shae is a woman.
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  • Fall '19
  • Implicature, implicatures

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