8 Structure & Dynamics of the Psyche (Collected Works of C. G. Jung, Volume 8).pdf

8 Structure & Dynamics of the Psyche (Collected Works of C. G. Jung, Volume 8).pdf

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Unformatted text preview: BOLLINGEN SERIES XX THE COLLECTED WORKS OF C. G. JUNG VOLUME 8 EDITORS † SIR HERBERT READ MICHAEL FORDHAM, M.D., M.R.C.P. GERHARD ADLER, PH.D. WILLIAM MCGUIRE, executive editor 2 The Dream of Nebuchadnezzar From the “Speculum humanae salvationis,” Codex Palatinus Latinus 413, Vatican, 15th cent. (see pars. 163, 484f., 559) 3 THE STRUCTURE DYNAMICS OF PSYCHE C. G. JUNG SECOND EDITION TRANSLATED BY R. F. C. HULL BOLLINGEN SERIES XX 4 AND THE COPYRIGHT © 1960 BY BOLLINGEN FOUNDATION, NEW YORK, N. Y. SECOND EDITION COPYRIGHT © 1969 BY PRINCETON UNIVERSITY PRESS PUBLISHED BY PRINCETON UNIVERSITY PRESS, PRINCETON, N. J. Third printing, with corrections, 1975 THIS EDITION IS BEING PUBLISHED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA FOR THE BOLLINGEN FOUNDATION BY PRINCETON UNIVERSITY PRESS, AND IN ENGLAND BY ROUT-LEDGE AND KEGAN PAUL, LTD. IN THE AMERICAN EDITION, ALL THE VOLUMES COMPRISING THE COLLECTED WORKS CONSTITUTE NUMBER XX IN BOLLINGEN SERIES. THE PRESENT VOLUME IS NUMBER 8 OF THE COLLECTED WORKS, AND WAS THE NINTH TO APPEAR. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NUMBER: 75–156 ISBN 0-691-09774-7 MANUFACTURED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA BY PRINCETON UNIVERSITY PRESS, PRINCETON, N. J. 5 EDITORIAL NOTE This volume of the Collected Works contains essays which reveal the main dynamic models Jung has used and developed over a period that began when he broke away from psychoanalysis and formulated his own concepts as distinct from those of Freud. The first work, “On Psychic Energy,” was written by Jung in answer to criticisms of his libido theory as it had been expounded in Wandlungen und Symbole der Libido (trans. as Psychology of the Unconscious) and The Theory of Psychoanalysis. Originally entitled “The Theory of Libido,” it was begun circa 1912 but not completed till many years later (1928). Its importance lies in the clarity of its argument and the comprehensiveness of its subject-matter. Another and longer essay, “On the Nature of the Psyche” (first version, 1946), presents an extensive review of Jung’s theoretical position many years later and covers almost the whole field of his endeavour. In it the author thoroughly examines the concepts of consciousness and the unconscious against their historical background, particularly in relation to instinct, and elaborates his theory of archetypes, a subject first broached more than twenty-five years earlier in “Instinct and the Unconscious” (1919). Of the first importance for understanding Jung’s thinking is “Synchronicity: An Acausal Connecting Principle” (1952). Here he advocates the inclusion of “meaningful coincidence” as a dimension of understanding over and above causality. 6 This more specialized essay is truly revolutionary in nature, and Jung hesitated for many years before writing it; the subject was first broached in 1930, and eventually he published the developed work in a volume to which Professor Pauli also contributed. It contains hints for linking physics with psychology, as indeed the two aforementioned essays do also. Round these three works the remaining papers are grouped thematically. From among them two may be singled out: “The Stages of Life.” because of the influence of the ideas it contains on individuation as a phenomenon of the second half of life, and “The Transcendent Function,” written in 1916 but not brought to light for forty years. The latter develops Jung’s earliest researches into the prospective character of unconscious processes and contains the first and, indeed, one of the most comprehensive accounts of “active imagination,” though his later writings refer to and exemplify this technique again and again. The papers in Section V may also be of particular interest, as showing how the entities “soul,” “mind,” “spirit,” and “life” are reduced to an empirical basis and replaced by the phenomenological concept of “psychic reality” as the subject of psychological investigation. 7 TRANSLATOR’S NOTE As indicated in the editorial footnotes appended to these papers, previous translations have been consulted whenever possible in the preparation of this volume. Grateful acknowledgment is here made, in particular, to Mr. A. R. Pope, for help derived from his version of “The Transcendent Function,” issued by the Students Association of the C. G. Jung Institute, Zurich; to Dr. Robert A. Clark, for reference to his translation of “General Aspects of Dream Psychology,” privately published by the Analytical Psychology Club of New York, in Spring, 1956; to Miss Ethel Kirkham, for reference to her translation of “On the Nature of Dreams,” Spring, 1948; and to Dr. Eugene H. Henley, whose translation of “The Soul and Death” in Spring, 1945, forms the basis of the present version. 8 EDITORIAL NOTE SECOND EDITION TO THE For this edition, bibliographical citations and entries have been revised in the light of subsequent publications in the Collected Works, and essential corrections have been made. The German language equivalent of the present volume was published in the Gesammelte Werke in 1967, under the title Die Dynamik des Unbewussten (Zurich: Rascher). The English and German versions of Volume 8 contain the same works, with corresponding paragraph numbers up to par. 871, after which there are variations as explained in the editorial note on page 417 infra. A third revised edition of Über psychische Energetik und das Wesen der Träume, source of five works in the present volume, appeared in 1965 (Zurich: Rascher), its revisions being chiefly bibliographical. Both of the aforementioned Swiss editions yielded revisions for the present English edition. 9 TABLE OF CONTENTS EDITORIAL NOTE TRANSLATOR’S NOTE EDITORIAL NOTE TO THE SECOND EDITION On Psychic Energy Translated from “Über die Energetik der Seele,” in Über psychische Energetik und das Wesen der Träume (Zurich: Rascher, 1948). I. General Remarks on the Energic Point of View in Psychology a. Introduction b. The Possibility of Quantitative Measurement in Psychology II. Application of the Energic Standpoint a. The Psychological Concept of Energy b. The Conservation of Energy c. Entropy d. Energism and Dynamism III. Fundamental Concepts of the Libido Theory 10 a. Progression and Regression b. Extraversion and Introversion c. The Canalization of Libido d. Symbol Formation IV. The Primitive Conception of Libido The Transcendent Function Translated from an unpublished ms., “Die Transzendente Funktion,” written in 1916, later published in Geist und Werk (Zurich: Rhein-Verlag, 1958). A Review of the Complex Theory Translated from “Allgemeines zur Komplextheorie,” Über psychische Energetik und das Wesen der Träume (Zurich: Rascher, 1948). II The Significance of Constitution and Heredity in Psychology Translated from “Die Bedeutung von Konstitution und Vererbung für die Psychologie,” Die medizinische Welt (Berlin), III (1929). Psychological Factors Determining Human Behaviour 11 Originally published in English in Factors Determining Human Behavior (Harvard Tercentenary Conference of Arts and Sciences, 1936; Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1937). III Instinct and the Unconscious Translated from “Instinkt und Unbewusstes,” Über psychische Energetik und das Wesen der Träume (Zurich: Rascher, 1948). The Structure of the Psyche Translated from “Die Struktur der Seele,” Seelenprobleme der Gegenwart (Zurich: Rascher, 1931). On the Nature of the Psyche Translated from “Theoretische Überlegungen zum Wesen des Psychischen,” Von den Wurzeln des Bewusstseins (Zurich: Rascher, 1954). 1. The Unconscious in Historical Perspective 2. The Significance of the Unconscious in Psychology 3. The Dissociability of the Psyche 4. Instinct and Will 5. Conscious and Unconscious 12 6. The Unconscious as a Multiple Consciousness 7. Patterns of Behaviour and Archetypes 8. General Considerations and Prospects Supplement IV General Aspects of Dream Psychology Translated from “Allgemeine Gesichtspunkte zur Psychologie des Traumes,” in Über psychische Energetik und das Wesen der Träume (Zurich: Rascher, 1948). On the Nature of Dreams Translated from “Vom Wesen der Träume,” Über psychische Energetik und das Wesen der Träume (Zurich, Rascher, 1948). V The Psychological Foundations of Belief in Spirits Translated from “Die psychologischen Grundlagen des Geisterglaubens,” Über psychische Energetik und das Wesen der Träume (Zurich: Rascher, 1948). Spirit and Life 13 Translated from “Geist und Leben,” Form und Sinn (Augsburg), II (1926). Basic Postulates of Analytical Psychology Translated from “Das Grundproblem der gegenwärtigen Psychologie,” Wirklichkeit der Seele (Zurich: Rascher, 1934). Analytical Psychology and Weltanschauung Translated from “Analytische Psychologie und Weltanschauung,” Seelenprobleme der Gegenwart (Zurich: Rascher, 1931). The Real and the Surreal Translated from “Wirklichkeit Querschnitt (Berlin), XII (1933). und Überwirklichkeit,” VI The Stages of Life Translated from “Die Lebenswende,” Seelenprobleme der Gegenwart (Zurich: Rascher, 1931). The Soul and Death Translated from “Seele und Tod,” Wirklichkeit der Seele (Zurich: Rascher, 1934). VII 14 Synchronicity: An Acausal Connecting Principle Translated from “Synchronizität als ein Prinzip akausaler Zusammenhänge,” Naturerklärung und Psyche (Studien aus dem C. G. Jung-Institut, IV; Zurich: Rascher, 1952). FOREWORD 1. EXPOSITION 2. AN ASTROLOGICAL EXPERIMENT 3. FORERUNNERS OF THE IDEA OF SYNCHRONICITY 4. CONCLUSION APPENDIX: On Synchronicity Translated from “Über Synchronizität,” Eranos-Jahrbuch 1951 (Zurich: Rhein-Verlag, 1952). BIBLIOGRAPHY INDEX 15 I ON PSYCHIC ENERGY ____ THE TRANSCENDENT FUNCTION ____ A REVIEW OF THE COMPLEX THEORY 16 ON PSYCHIC ENERGY1 I. GENERAL REMARKS ON THE ENERGIC POINT OF VIEW IN PSYCHOLOGY a. Introduction [1] The concept of libido which I have advanced2 has met with many misunderstandings and, in some quarters, complete repudiation; it may therefore not be amiss if I examine once more the bases of this concept. [2] It is a generally recognized truth that physical events can be looked at in two ways: from the mechanistic and from the energic standpoint.3 The mechanistic view is purely causal; it conceives an event as the effect of a cause, in the sense that unchanging substances change their relations to one another according to fixed laws. [3] The energic point of view on the other hand is in essence final;4 the event is traced back from effect to cause on the assumption that some kind of energy underlies the changes in phenomena, that it maintains itself as a constant throughout these changes and finally leads to entropy, a condition of general equilibrium. The flow of energy has a definite direction (goal) in that it follows the gradient of potential in a way that cannot be reversed. The idea of energy is not that of a substance moved in space; it is a concept abstracted from relations of movement. The concept, 17 therefore, is founded not on the substances themselves but on their relations, whereas the moving substance itself is the basis of the mechanistic view. [4] Both points of view are indispensable for understanding physical events and consequently enjoy general recognition. Meanwhile, their continued existence side by side has gradually given rise to a third conception which is mechanistic as well as energic—although, logically speaking, the advance from cause to effect, the progressive action of the cause, cannot at the same time be the retrogressive selection of a means to an end.5 It is not possible to conceive that one and the same combination of events could be simultaneously causal and final, for the one determination excludes the other. There are in fact two different points of view, the one reversing the other; for the principle of finality is the logical reverse of the principle of causality. Finality is not only logically possible, it is also an indispensable explanatory principle, since no explanation of nature can be mechanistic only. If indeed our concepts were exclusively those of moving bodies in space, there would be only causal explanation; but we have also to deal conceptually with relations of movement, which require the energic standpoint.6 If this were not so, there would have been no need to invent the concept of energy. [5] The predominance of one or the other point of view depends less upon the objective behaviour of things than upon the psychological attitude of the investigator and thinker. Empathy leads to the mechanistic view, abstraction to the energic view. Both these types are liable to commit the error of hypostatizing their principles because of the so-called objective facts of experience. They make the mistake of 18 assuming that the subjective concept is identical with the behaviour of the thing itself; that, for example, causality as we experience it is also to be found objectively in the behaviour of things. This error is very common and leads to incessant conflicts with the opposing principle; for, as was said, it is impossible to think of the determining factor being both causal and final at the same time. But this intolerable contradiction only comes about through the illegitimate and thoughtless projection into the object of what is a mere point of view. Our points of view remain without contradiction only when they are restricted to the sphere of the psychological and are projected merely as hypotheses into the objective behaviour of things. The causality principle can suffer without contradiction its logical reversal, but the facts cannot; hence causality and finality must preclude one another in the object. On the well-known principle of minimizing differences, it is customary to effect a theoretically inadmissible compromise by regarding a process as partly causal, partly final7—a compromise which gives rise to all sorts of theoretical hybrids but which yields, it cannot be denied, a relatively faithful picture of reality.8 We must always bear in mind that despite the most beautiful agreement between the facts and our ideas, explanatory principles are only points of view, that is, manifestations of the psychological attitude and of the a priori conditions under which all thinking takes place. b. The Possibility of Quantitative Measurement in Psychology 19 [6] From what has been said it should be sufficiently clear that every event requires the mechanistic-causal as well as the energic-final point of view. Expediency, that is to say, the possibility of obtaining results, alone decides whether the one or the other view is to be preferred. If, for example, the qualitative side of the event comes into question, then the energic point of view takes second place, because it has nothing to do with the things themselves but only with their quantitative relations of movement. [7] It has been much disputed whether or not mental and psychic events can be subjected to an energic view. A priori there is no reason why this should not be possible, since there are no grounds for excluding psychic events from the field of objective experience. The psyche itself can very well be an object of experience. Yet, as Wundt’s example shows,9 one can question in good faith whether the energic point of view is applicable to psychic phenomena at all, and if it is applicable, whether the psyche can be looked upon as a relatively closed system. [8] As to the first point, I am in entire agreement with von Grot—one of the first to propose the concept of psychic energy—when he says: “The concept of psychic energy is as much justified in science as that of physical energy, and psychic energy has just as many quantitative measurements and different forms as has physical energy.”10 [9] As to the second point, I differ from previous investigators in that I am not concerned in the least in fitting psychic energy processes into the physical system. I am not interested in such a classification because we have at best only the vaguest conjectures to go on and no real point of 20 departure. Although it seems certain to me that psychic energy is in some way or other closely connected with physical processes, yet, in order to speak with any authority about this connection, we would need quite different experiences and insights. As to the philosophical side of the question, I entirely endorse the views of Busse.11 I must also support Külpe when he says: “It would thus make no difference whether a quantum of mental energy inserts itself into the course of the material process or not: the law of the conservation of energy as formulated hitherto would not be impaired.”12 [10] In my view the psychophysical relation is a problem in itself, which perhaps will be solved some day. In the meantime, however, the psychologist need not be held up by this difficulty, but can regard the psyche as a relatively closed system. In that case we must certainly break with what seems to me the untenable “psychophysical” hypothesis, since its epiphenomenalist point of view is simply a legacy from the old-fashioned scientific materialism. Thus, as Lasswitz, von Grot, and others think, the phenomena of consciousness have no functional connections with one another, for they are only (!) “phenomena, expressions, symptoms of certain deeper functional relationships.” The causal connections existing between psychic facts, which we can observe at any time, contradict the epiphenomenon theory, which has a fatal similarity to the materialistic belief that the psyche is secreted by the brain as the gall is by the liver. A psychology that treats the psyche as an epiphenomenon would better call itself brain-psychology, and remain satisfied with the meagre results that such a psycho-physiology can yield. The psyche deserves to be taken as a phenomenon in its own right; there are no grounds at all for regarding it as a mere 21 epiphenomenon, dependent though it may be on the functioning of the brain. One would be as little justified in regarding life as an epiphenomenon of the chemistry of carbon compounds. [11] The immediate experience of quantitative psychic relations on the one hand, and the unfathomable nature of a psychophysical connection on the other, justify at least a provisional view of the psyche as a relatively closed system. Here I find myself in direct opposition to von Grot’s psychophysical energetics. In my view he is moving here on very uncertain ground, so that his further remarks have little plausibility. Nevertheless, I would like to put von Grot’s formulations before the reader in his own words, as they represent the opinions of a pioneer in this difficult field: (1) Psychic energies possess quantity and mass, just like physical energies. (2) As different forms of psychic work and psychic potentiality, they can be transformed into one another. (3) They can be converted into physical energies and vice versa, by means of physiological processes.13 [12] I need scarcely add that statement three seems to require a significant question mark. In the last analysis it is only expediency that can decide, not whether the energic view is possible in itself, but whether it promises results in practice.14 [13] The possibility of exact quantitative measurement of physical energy has proved that the energic standpoint does 22 yield results when applied to physical events. But it would still be possible to consider physical events as forms of energy even if there were no exact quantitative measurement but merely the possibility of estimating quantities.15 If, however, even that proved to be impossible, then the energic point of view would have to be abandoned, since if there is not at least a possibility of a quantitative estimate the energic standpoint is quite superfluous. (i) THE SUBJECTIVE SYSTEM OF VALUES [14] The applicability of the energic standpoint to psychology rests, then, exclusively on the question whether a quantitative estimate of psychic energy is possible or not. This question can be met with an unconditional affirmative, since our psyche actually possesses an ...
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