Unformatted text preview: Study Guide eExam 2 This is just a study guide and some topics/concepts are not listed in it that are included in exam 2. Anything I discussed during class is a fair question in eExam 2. Make sure you know the basic reactions from eExam 1. 1‐ Ch 19 The chapter has a lot of reactions make sure to prepare reactions concept maps: one for preparation of ketone/ aldehyde and one for reactions of aldehyde/ketone. a‐ Naming of ketones/aldehydes b‐ Comparison of reactivity of aldehyde and ketone toward nucleophilic acyl addition c‐ Preparation of ketone and aldehyde (easier to put it in the form of a rxn concept map, check lecture slides) ‐ Reactions of aldehyde/ketone ‐ Rxn with CN‐ to form cyanohydrin (CN can be either reduced or hydrolyzed to give two other important functional groups) ‐ Rxn with Grignard reagents (aldehyde will yield secondary alcohol, ketone will yield tertiary alcohol) (mechanism required) ‐ Rxn with amine (the product depends on the amine classification whether it is primary or secondary/check slides) ‐ Wolff‐Kishner reaction ‐ Wittig reaction (advantage of rxn: double bond is always exactly where the C=O group was in reactant, list limitation for the rxn) ‐ Rxn of alpha‐beta unsaturated ketones/aldehydes with organ copper lithium compounds (where does Nu attack place take place? reason behind it, how to prepare that type of aldehyde/ketone) ‐ Reduction of aldehyde/ketone using LiAlH4 and NaBH4 (mechanism required). The difference between alcohols formed starting from each. Reduction of carboxylic acid and ester using hydride. ‐ Oxidation of aldehyde/ketone. d‐ Intramolecular ketone/aldehyde reaction (cyclic form of glucose is an example) e‐ Acetal as a protecting group (when to use, how to put it on, how to remove) 2‐ Ch 20 a‐ Comparison of acidity of carboxylic acids to each other and/or to alcohols and other compounds. b‐ Preparation of carboxylic acid (draw a rxn concept map and add limitations of each rxn on the same map when applicable) c‐ Reactions of carboxylic acid ‐ Reduction of carboxylic acid ‐ Acid/base reaction of carboxylic acid ‐ Reaction of carboxylic acid with SOCl2 ‐ Fischer esterification d‐ Preparation of nitriles e‐
Reaction of nitriles 3-Ch 21 Nomenclature of all acid derivatives Reactivity of acid derivatives Mechanism of nucleophilic acyl sub Preparation of one acid derivative starting from another one (use the chart below to summarize all the reactions). Note: less reactive acid derivative can be formed from the more reactive one. Rxn of acid derivatives i. ‐ The chart you filled below is rxn of acid derivative to form another. ii. ‐
Draw rxn concept map for each acid derivative (check slides or an e.g. in p830) ‐ Reduction of acid derivatives iii. ‐ Hydrolysis of acid derivatives iv. ‐ Acid derivatives with RMgX and R2CuLi Soap preparation and characteristics. ...
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- Fall '19
- form of a rxn concept map