Bio326RSu19.01.Intro-2.pptx - Microbial Scale Phylogeny...

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Microbial Scale
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Phylogeny Based on Nucleotide Sequence of the Gene for the 16S Ribosomal RNA PHYLOGENY BASED ON DNA SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY (OR DEGREE OF SIMILARITY) From a common ancestor, mutations occurred within genomes, evolution occurred, and biodiversity is the end result. During evolution, the number of mutations within a chromosome (or within a given gene) increases with time. Therefore, relatedness of two organisms can be determined by measuring the degree of nucleotide sequence similarity within their genomes (or within a specific gene). That is, if two organisms share a great degree of homology within their genome, they are closely related and they evolved from a common ancestor relatively recently. There has not been much time for many different mutations to occur. On the other hand, if two organisms have a very low degree of homology within their genome, they are not closely related and they evolved from a common ancestor long ago. Over that long time, many mutations occurred.
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