Chapter 12.docx - Chapter 12 Patterns of Inheritance Gregor...

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Chapter 12: Patterns of Inheritance Gregor Mendel o Studied inheritance by breeding pea plants Pea Plants Experiments o Established dominant and recessive traits o Demonstrated phenotypic ratio (phenotype) – Physical Appearance o Is 3:1 and genotypic (genotype) – total set of alleles is 1:2:1 Five Element Model 1. Parents transmit discrete factors (genes) 2. Each individual gets one copy from each parent 3. Not all copies of a gene are identical a. Alleles – different versions of a gene b. Homozygous – 2 of the same allele c. Heterozygous – different alleles 4. Alleles remain discreet – no blending 5. Presence of an allele does not guarantee expression Pedigrees o Dominant – trait is present in every generation o Recessive – trait will skip a generation Dihybrid Cross Ratio – 9:3:3:1 Probability
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